1. adipose
    connective tissue impregnated with fat cells
  2. aponeurosis
    sheetlike tendon
  3. bronchi
    the two major branches from the trachea leading to right and left lungs
  4. caudal
    toward the tail or coccyx
  5. checking action
    the use of muscles of inspiration to impede the outward flow of air during respiration for speech
  6. enisform
  7. fissure/sulcus
    relatively deep groove
  8. foramen
    an opening or passageway
  9. intercostal
    between the ribs
  10. manubrium
    process of malleus forming the major attachment to the tympanic membrane
  11. meatus
  12. spinal column
    • the vertebral column
    • the functional unit is called the vertebra (plural, vertebrae)
    • five divisions: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal
    • spinous process- bumpy part you can feel on the outside
    • transverse process- on both sides of the spinal column
    • vertebral foramen- prominant hole posterior to the body of the spinal column
    • vertebral segments ride one atop another to form the vertebral column; completed by means of superior and inferior articular facets that provide the mating surfaces for two adjacent vertebrae, protecting the spinal cord and allowing limited rotary and rocking motion.
  13. sub-glottal
    beneath the glottis (the space between the true vocal folds)
  14. synergist
    a muscle in conjunction with another muscle to facilitate movement
  15. tidal volume
    the volume inspired and expired during normal, quiet respiration
  16. torque
    rotary twisting
  17. transverse
    at right angles to the long axis
  18. visceral
    pertaining to the inner organs
  19. vital capacity
    the total volume of air that can be inspired after a maximum expiration
  20. thorax
    area bounded in the superior aspect by the first rib and the clavicle, and in the inferior by the 12th rib

    lateral and anterior aspects are composed of the ribs and sternum.

    The entire thorax is suspended from the vertebral column (spinal column), also the spinal cord (the nervous system supply for the body and extremeties)
  21. cervical vertebrae
    • C1: atlas; supports the skull for rotation. posterior of C1 has reduced prominance, called the posterior tubercle. The superior articular facet is larger than those of C3-7, providing increased surface area for vertebra-skull articulation. Vertebral foramen is larger than those in the lower cervical vertebrae, reflecting the transition from spinal cord to brainstem that begins at that level
    • C2: on which the skull pivots. has a rudimentary spinous process, the atlas does not.
    • C3-7
  22. thoracic vertebrae
    • there are 12; provide the basis for the respiratory framework bc they form the posterior point of attachment for the ribs of the bony thorax
    • have larger spinous and transverse processes
    • each of the remaining ribs (2-9) attaches to the transverse process and corpus of the same-numbered vertebra and also attaches to the body of the vertebra above it (rib 2 attaches to transverse process of T2 and body of T1 and T2)
  23. lumbar vertebrae
    • large for lifting and ambulation (walking)
    • no transverse foramen
    • articular facets on vertebral body
  24. sacral
    • one bone
    • forms sacrum
  25. coccyx
    composed of the fused coccygeal vertebrae, named this because of its beaklike appearance
  26. pevlic girdle vs pectoral girdle
    lower extremeties attached vs upper extremeties attached
  27. pubic symphysis
    in pelvic girdle at the joining of the two pubic bones, deeper is the massive medial structure, the sacrum
  28. illium
    • part of the pelvic girdle (along with the sacrum, pubic bone and ischium).
    • large, winglike bone (similar in this way to the support of the abdominal musculature and the prominent hip bone on which many parents carry their children)
    • the iliac crest of the superior-lateral surface is an important landmark as the superior point of attachement for the inguinal ligament, which runs from the crest of the iliac to the joining of the two bones at the pubic symphysis
  29. the scapula and the clavicle
    • the parts of the pectoral girdle, bones supporting the upper extremeties.
    • clavicle is the collarbone, it is attached to the superior sternum, running laterally to join with the winglike scapula
    • clavicle provides the anterior support for the shoulder
    • from the scapula are slung several muscles that hold it in dynamic tension that facilitates flexible upper body movement without compromising strength
    • Disarticulation of these two bones will cause a collapse of the structure so that the shoulder rotates forward and inward
  30. how many pairs of ribs are in the human thorax
    12, with each consisting of a head, neck, shaft and angle
  31. sternum's three components
    • manubrium sterni - provides attachment for the clavicle and first rib. the second rib articulates at the juncture of the manubrium and corpus, known as the manubrosternal angle
    • corpus, or body-provides articulation for 5 more ribs
    • xiphoid or enisform process
  32. trachea
    • a flexible tube, approx. 11 cm long and composed of a series of 16-20 hyaline cartilage rings that are open in the posterior aspect. Runs from the inferior border of the larynx until it bifurcates (divides) at a point known as the carina trachea to become the left and right mainstem bronchi (or bronchial tubes)
    • tracheal rings are 2-2.5 cm in diameter and .4-.5 cm wide, connected by a mucuous membrane lining to provide continuity and flexibility
    • gap in the back for increase and decrease of diameter of the ring, an action controlled by the trachealis muscle. the gap between the rings is spanned by smooth muscle that is in a steady state of contraction until oxygen needs of the individual increase, at which time the muscle relaxes
    • submucosal glands assist in cleaning the trachea
  33. how are the tracheal cartilaginous rings well suited for the task of air transport?
    the process involves drawing air into the lungs and expelling it, pressures (negative and positive) must be generated to get that gas moving. a rigid tube will not permit the degree of flexibility detected by an active life. So the trachea needs to be rigid and flexible. cartilage provides support and the membrane permits freedom of movement
  34. esophagus
    • posterior to the trachea
    • long collapsed tube running parallel to and behind the trachea, providing a way to the digestive system
    • a bolus of food being propelled by gravity and peristaltic contractions to the stomach make it so that the esophagus is no longer collapsed
  35. Filtering functions of the respiratory pathway to safeguard lungs against pollutants include:
    • notril hairs- catching more particulate matter more than 10 microns before it enters the trachea
    • moist mucous membrane of the upper resp. system has another receptacle for foreign matter. goblet cells within the mucousal lining and submucosal glands secrete lubricant into the respiratory tract to trap pollutants as they enter the trachea and larynx
    • resp. passageway from the nose to the beginning of the bronchi is lined with tall columnar epithelium covered by cilia that beat more than 1000 times per minute
    • in the lower pathway, the beating action drives pollutants upward and posteriorly. when it reaches vocal folds we clear the throat where it can be swallowed.
    • the beating epithelia can be damaged by pollutants, such as cigarette smoke
    • particles not removed by the beating epethelia are removed by the lymphatic system. pollutants are suspended in mucus and migrate to the bronchioles through coughing, where they can be eliminated through lymphatic system
    • lungs are also protected as the air is warmed and humidified, increasing ability to exchange air and moistens the delicate alveolar tissue
  36. pleura
    • serous membrane covering the lung
    • visceral-encase the lungs
    • parietal (costal)- thoracic lining (costal covers the inner surface of the rib cage to be specific)
    • composed of elastic and fibrous tissue endowed with venules (tiny veins) and lymphocytes
  37. diaphragm and its pleural lining
    the pleural lining of the diaphragm maintains its contact with the visceral pleurae of the two lungs above it causing the lungs to expand
  38. diaphragm
    • the primary muscle of inspiration
    • shape of an inverted bowl, attachments along the lower margin of the rib cage, sternum and vertebral column
    • forms complete separation between upper (thoracic) and lower (abdominal) chambers
    • when it contracts, the force is directed downward, resulting in elongation of the cavity formed by the ribs, so the lungs expand and air enters through the resp. passageway
    • the intermediate region is made up of a large, leafy aponeurosis called the central tendon. when the muscle contracts, muscle fibers shorten and the diaphragm pulls the central tendon down and forward
    • three diaphragmatic hiatuses (openings) where structures pass: descending abdominal aorta, esophageal hiatus and inferior vena cava
    • contraction of the diaphragm has the result of pulling the central tendon down and forward

  39. parasternal/paravertebral
    • near the sternum portion of the intercostal muscles encompassing the chondral aspect of the ribs has been shown to be active during forced inspiration (most of the internal intercostal muscles are muscles of expiration, except for the chondral portion)
    • capable of segmental activation, so that one portion of the muscle can contract while contraction of the rest of the muscle is inhibited
  40. pectoralis major
    • a muscle of the upper arm and shoulder
    • large, fan-shaped muscle that originates from two heads. the sternal head attaches along the length of the sternum at the costal cartilages, while the clavicular head arises from the anterior surface of the clavicle
    • runs from the sternal and clavicular origins up and out to insert into the greater tubercle of the humerus. converges at the crest of the greater tubercle of the humerus
    • in respiration it elevates the sternum and increases the transverse dimension of the rib cage
  41. external oblique
    • one of the major abdominal muscles
    • most superficial of the abdominal muscles, as well as the largest
    • originate along the osseous portion of the lower seven ribs, fan downward to insert into the iliac crest, inguinal ligament, and abdominal aponeurosis
  42. linea alba
    • (white line)
    • runs from the xiphoid process to the pubic symphysis, forming a midline structure for muscular attachment
    • as it progresses laterally, it differentiates into two sheets of aponeurosis, between which is placed the rectus abdominis. comes back together to form another band of tendon, the linea similunaris
  43. rectus abdominis
    • the external oblique aponeurosis communicates directly with the fascia covering the rectus abdominis, forming a continuous layer of connective tissue from the linea alba to the external oblique muscle
    • prominent midline muscles of the abdominal region, which originate at the pubis inferiorly
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