1. A disease state that results from presence ofpathogens in or on the body
  2. Infection Cycle:
    Infectious Agent * Resevoir * Portal of Exit *Means of Transmission * Portals of Entry *Susceptible Host
  3. Disease-producing Microorganism
  4. Types of Infectious Agents:
    Bacteria (most common), Virus (Smallest), Fungi
  5. Example of a Resevoir:
    Skin flora (natural habitat)
  6. Examples of Transmission:
    Contact, Vectors, Airborne, etc.
  7. Examples of Susceptible Hosts:
    Anyone in immunocompromised state (resistance to the pathogen)
  8. Common Infection-causing Bacteria seen in the HOSPITAL:
    Staphylococcus aureus, Hepatitus B, HIV, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Escherichia coli
  9. Staphylococcus aureus, Hepatitus B, HIV, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Escherichia coli
    Skin/Mouth/Nose...Direct Contact...Wound infection, Abscess, Carbuncle
  10. Hepatitus B (Reseviour, Transmission, Manifestations)
    Blood, Feces, Fluids...Indirect Contact...Hepatits B
  11. HIV (Reseviour, Transmission, Manifestations)
    Blood, Semen, Vaginal Secretions...Direct Contact, Ingestion...AIDS
  12. Mycobacterium TB (Reseviour, Transmission, Manifestations)
    Sputum/Respiration/Ticks...Airborne/Vectors/Direct Contact...TB
  13. Escherichia Coli (Reseviour, Transmission, Manifestations)
    Feces/Meat/Unpasteurized foods...INGESTION
  14. Stages of Infection:
    (1) Incubation (2) Prodromal (3) Full Stage (4) Convalescent
  15. Stage of Infection: MOST infectious, showing vague signs/symptoms
  16. Stage of Infection: Time between entering host & symtoms
  17. Stage of Infection: patient is showing SPECIFIC signs and symptoms
    Full Stage
  18. Stage of Infection: Recovery Period :)
  19. Body's Response to Infection:
    *Normal Flora *Inflammatory Response *Immune Response (antigen/antibodies)
  20. Transmission Based Precautions for AIRBORNE PATHOGENS
    Spread through air Negative air pressure room Use masks when in room When patient is out of room, he must wear a mask Consult CDC re: TB
  21. Transmission Based Precautions for DROPLET:
    Private room Wear mask when near (3 feet) patient When patient is out of room, he must wear a mask Visitors can be no closer than 3 feet
  22. Transmission Based Precautions for CONTACT
    Concerns with MRSA, VRE, VISA

    Private room

    Wear gloves when entering room

    • Wear gown if possible contact with
    • infectious agent

    • Restrict time patient is out of
    • room

    • DO NOT share equipment between
    • patient rooms
  23. Used in providing care to ALL patients. Taken with all blood, body fluids, secretions, excretions (except sweat), nonintact skin, and mucous membranes
  24. Examples of Standard Precautions:
    Wear clean gloves Wear personal protective equipment DO NOT recap needles Handle used equipment carefully Be sure the area is clean Utilize private rooms for patients who may contaminate the area
  25. Applying principles of medical aspesis:
    Perform hand hygiene             Prevent soiled items from touching you             Do not place soiled linen on floor             Teach to cover mouth when coughing or sneezing             Avoid raising dust             Do not shake linens             Clean from clean to dirty             Sterilize items that are contaminated             Appropriate grooming             Follow standards for transmission precautions
  26. CDC Guidelines on HANDWASHING:
    Visibly soiled hands- wash with soap and water (minimum 15 seconds)Not visibly soiled- can use an alcohol cased rub Use an alcohol based rub: Before and after patient contact Before and after using gloves Before procedures When providing care from a contaminated to clean site After touching objects in a patient’s room
  27. Factors Placing Individuals at Risk for Infection
    Skin and mucous membraneWhite Blood Cells (WBCs)Younger and Older IndividualsGeneral Health StatusStress LevelIndwelling Medical Devices
  28. Medical asepsis
    clean technique (prevention of pathogens)
  29. Surgical asepsis
    sterile technique (FREE from microorganisms)
  30. Laboratory Data Indicating INFECTION:
    *Elevated WBC (leukocytes)*Elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (RBC)*Presence of Pathogen in urine, blood, sputum, draining
  31. Normal Count of White Blood Cells:
    5,000 - 10,000
  32. Neutrophils
    60-70%Acute Infections/Stress
  33. Lymphocytes
    20-40%Chronic bacteria/Viral infection
  34. Monocytes
    2-8%Scavenger, Severe Infections
  35. Eosinophils
  36. Basophils
    .5-1%Usually unaffected by infections
  37. Infections Commonly Seen with AGE:
    UTI (Urinary Tract Infections)Pulmonary InfectionsSkin Infections
  38. Key Steps for most accurate Prevention:
    *careful assessment*early detection/action*assess imunizations*assess for infections
  39. GOAL outcomes For the Patient:
    *Good Hygiene and Handwashing*Appropriate Nutrition*Up to date immunizations*Eat nutritiously*Know signs of infections*Know symptoms of allergies (including latex)
  40. Performing activities to prevent spread of infection:
  41. PPE (personal protective equipment)
  42. SAFE ways to dispose:
    Double bagging, BIOHAZARD label
  43. Part of Universal Precautions: healthcare workers must wear PPE when exposed to blood/body fluids...ALL patients are considered potentially INFECTED
    OSHA (1987)
  44. Hospital Acquired Infection
    Nosocomial Infection
  45. Antibiotic Resistant Organisms:
Card Set
Exam 1