Cardio 1-1.txt

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  1. What family history (5) is important in cardiovascular history?
    Heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, sudden death, and lipid disorders
  2. DOE
    Shortness of breath out of proportion to level of exertion
  3. What causes DOE?
    High pulmonary vascular pressure and high LV pressure (LV failure) cause fluid to leak into alveoli and intersitium, decreases oxygenation of blood at alveolus (due to salt and water in alveoli), and makes the intersitium wider and less compliant.
  4. Acute cardiac dyspnea
    SOB caused by severe leakage of fluid into alveoli/intersitium
  5. Patients with what disease have acute cardiac dyspnea
    Acute cardiac pulmonary edema
  6. What disorders cause Acute cardiac dyspnea?
    Chronic heart failure, AMI, Acute mitral/aortic valvular insufficiency (blood moves backward)
  7. Orthopnea
    Breathing is more comfortable while upright - pulls blood out of vasculature and relieves pressure
  8. How does recumbency cause cardiac dyspnea to be worse?
    Reduces blood in limbs and raises the LV end diastolic volume
  9. LVEDV
    Left ventricular end diastolic volume (preload)
  10. What does increased preload affect cardiac dyspnea?
    Worsens it - increase preload = increase pulmonary vascular pressure = fluid in alveoli
  11. Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (PND)
    Acute shortness of breath after laying down for a period of time
  12. What relieves PND?
    Standing up and repooling blood to extremities
  13. What affect does standing up have on preload?
    Decreases preload
  14. What causes PND?
    Laying down increases blood in vasculature; standing up decreases blood in vasculature
  15. What affect does recumbency have on preload?
    Increased preload
  16. Systolic heart failure
    Blood doesn't move forward adequately; reduced ejection fraction
  17. Diastolic heart failure
    Ventricles are not filled fully
  18. Fatigue
    Common symptom of poor LV function during systole (systolic dysfunction)
  19. How does systolic dysfunction effect EF?
    Decreased LVEF = decreased perfusion of organs and muscles causing fatigue
  20. LVEF
    Left ventricular ejection fraction - % of LV end diastolic volume ejected during contraction
  21. Why does LVEF cause edema?
    Decreased LVEF = decreased effective renal vascular perfusion; Kidneys respond by saving water
  22. How does systolic dysfunction cause weight gain?
    Edema - caused by retained salt water
  23. Pitting edema
    Fingers leave divots in subcutaenous tissue after it is removed
  24. What can be taken to control water retention?
Card Set
Cardio 1-1.txt
Cardiac Dyspnea
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