Name the layers of the earth with composition and type
- Inner Core: Iron/nickel: Solid
- Outer Core: Iron/nickel: Liquid
- Mantle: High density silicate rock: Solid
- Lithosphere: Rock: Solid
- Asthenosphere: Rock: Plastic
- Mesosphere: Rock: Solid
- Continental Crust: Iron poor silicate rock: Solid
- Oceanic Crust: Iron poor silicate rock: Solid
Name the 4 features of the continents
- Young mountain belts
- Old mountain belts
- Stable Platforms
Name the 4 features of the ocean floor
- Continental Margin
- Abyssal floor
- Mid-Ocean ridges
- Rift Valley
5 key points of Minerals as the building blocks of rocks.
- Naturally occuring
- Inorganic solid
- Crystalline structure
- Chemical formula
- Physical properties
Break down rocks
Define properties of an atom
- Proton +
- Neutron 0
- Electron -
What is an Isotope
An Atom that has more Neutrons than Protons
Name 2 types of Atom bonding
- Ionic Bonding- Electrical attraction of two Atoms
- Covalent Bonding- Atoms share Electrons
What are the 2 most abundant elements on earth?
Oxygen 46% and Silicon 27%. Together they form Quartz.
Which minerals are the most important and abundant?
Define the 2 types of Geology
- Historical Geology, the study of the earth’s origin and history (both life and tectonic history)
- Physical Geology, the scientific study of the materials and processes of the earth both internal and external.
Who is Archbishop James Ussher?
Using the bible he decided that earth was formed in 4004 BC
Who is George Cuvier?
He invented Catastrophism, which says the earth was formed through catastrophies in a short period of time, roughly 6000 years.
Who is James Hutton?
A Scottish scientest that was known as the "father of geology". He created the principle of uniformity, stating that the present is the key to the past. He taught that creation was a very slow and constant process.
Outline the Scientific Method.
- 1. Collect facts through observations and measurement.
- 2. Develop a hypothesis to explain the facts
- 3. Develop experiments to test the facts
- 4. Accept reject or modify the hypothesis based on the results, making a Theory(best explanation and supported by many facts) or a Law or Principle(a theory that has never been disproved and can be expressed mathematically).
What are the 4 spheres of earth?
Differentiate open and closed systems.
- Closed: energy can flow in and out but not matter, like Earth.
- Open: matter and energy can flow in and out.
Differentiate positive and negative feedback mechanisms.
- Postive: enhance change
- Negative: maintain the system as is
Name the two major systems and source of energy for each.
- External System: powered by sun and gravity. (rivers, glaciers, wind, groundwater, shoreline.)
- Internal System: powered by radiogenic heat and gravity. (volcanoes,earthquakes,tectonic system)
what are the 3 types of plate boundaries
- Divergent:spreading centers and rift valleys
- Convergent:colliding plates creating mountains
- Transform:plates slide past each other, like san andreas fault
What makes igneous rock?
Crystalization:when magma or lava cools
What makes Sedimentary rock?
Lithification:caused by weatherning, transport,and depositon of rock known as sediment that gets compacted or cemented.
What makes Metamorphic rock?
Metamorphism:heat and intense pressure. these will eventually melt and create magma.