Learning in Animals

  1. What is learning?
    occurs between the perception of information (stimuli) by the sense organs and the ultimate storage of some part of that information in the brain
  2. What is memory?
    recollection and use of that information at a later time
  3. What does memory involve?
    recording, storage, and retrieval
  4. What types of memory do we have?
    short term and long term
  5. Where does memory occur in the brain?
  6. What are instincts?
    genetic programs that animals are born with
  7. Is a stimulus still required for instincts?
    yes, stimulus is still required for an instinct to kick in
  8. Instinctual behaviors are modified by _____.
  9. What are the three parts of the learning process?
    • habituation
    • classical conditioning
    • operant conditioning
  10. What is habituation?
    • adapting animals at a young age to stimuli
    • example:  riding in the car, loud noises, people
  11. What is another term for habituation?
  12. What happens if we don't socialize an animal at a young age?
    the animal develops anxiety and phobias
  13. What is classical conditioning?  Who was the theorist who discovered classical conditioning and how did he do it?
    • innate reflex-like responses
    • discovered by Pavlov
    • dogs salivate when saw food, paired with ringing bell, removed food as stimulus, ringing bell still caused salivation
  14. Classical conditioning is _____ stimulus paired with _____ stimulus
    • neutral
    • unconditioned
  15. What is operant conditioning?
    rewarding good behavior and vice versa
  16. When using positive reinforcement, the reward must come within _____ of response.
  17. What is negative reinforcement?
    removing aversive stimulus incraeses chances of a response
  18. Is negative reinforcement the same as punishment?
  19. What is punishment?
    aversive stimulus after unwanted act to stop behavior
  20. When does punishment need to occur?
    within 1 second after the act
  21. What kinds of things can you do if an animal is caught in the act of doing something wrong?
    • interrupt:  use a sound or throw a soft object
    • distract:  call dog
    • command:  tell it to do something, praise if obeys
  22. What are the 4 different types of behavior modification techniques?
    • flooding
    • systematic desensitization
    • counter conditioning
    • extinction
  23. What is flooding?
    • repeatedly presenting stimulus which causes anxiety
    • stop the stimulus once the pet relaxes
  24. Does flooding for work fear?
  25. What is anxiety?
    anticipation of danger from unknown
  26. Wha is fear?
    consciously recognized external threat
  27. What is phobia?
    persistent, excessive, irrational fear
  28. What are some signs dogs show when they are anxious?
    • ears back
    • panting
    • licking lips
    • trembling
    • yawning
    • pacing
  29. What are some signs dogs show when they are showing fear?
    • tail tucked
    • avoidance
    • crying
    • shaking
    • escaping
  30. What are some signs dogs show when they are showing a phobia to something?
    overreaction resulting in injury and destruction
  31. How do we desensitize and animal?
    • present in intensity which doesn't elicit fear
    • gradually increase amount until the animal is no longer afraid
  32. What is counter conditioning?
    training a new response incompatible with the old one
  33. When is counter conditioning used?
    used to treat phobias and undesirable behaviors
  34. What is extinction?
    • occurs when behavior consistently is not rewarded
    • used for unwanted learned behaviors
    • intially the animal is more obnoxious
Card Set
Learning in Animals