ANTH 101 CH 1-3

  1. Anthropology
    the study of the human species and its immediate ancestors
  2. Holistic
    Encompassing past, present, and future; biology, society, language, and culture
  3. Culture
    Traditions and customs transmitted through learning, that form and guide the beliefs and behavior of the people exposed to them
  4. Society
    Organized life in groups
  5. Adaptation
    the process by which organisms cope with environmental forces and stresses.
  6. Foraging
    hunting and gathering of nature's bounty
  7. Food Production
    an economy based on plant cultivation and/or animal domestication
  8. General Anthropology(AKA "Four-Field" Anthropolgy)
    anthropology as a whole: cultural, archaeological, biological, and linguistic anthropology
  9. Biocultural
    combining biological and cultural approaches to a given problem
  10. Cultural Anthropology
    the comparative, cross-cultural, study of human society and culture
  11. Ethnography
    fieldwork in a particular cultural setting
  12. Archaeological Anthropology
    the study of human behavior through material remains
  13. Ethnology
    the study of sociocultural differences and similarities
  14. Paleoecology
    the study of interrelations among living things in an environment from the past
  15. Excavating
    involves digging through a succession of levels at a particular site
  16. Human Ecology
    studies ecosystems that include people; focuses on the ways in which human use of nature influences and is influenced by social organization and cultural values
  17. Prehistory
    period of time before the invention of writing
  18. Biological (aka Physical) Anthropology
    the study of human biological variation in time and space
  19. Linguistic Anthropology
    the study of language and linguistic diversity in time, space, and society
  20. Sociolinguistics
    the study of language in society
  21. Paleoanthropology
    human evolution as revealed by the fossil record
  22. Science
    field of study that seeks reliable explanations, with reference to the material and physical world
  23. Psychological Anthropology
    studies coss-cultural variation in psychological traits
  24. Applied (aka Public) Anthropology
    using anthropology to solve contemporary problems
  25. Theory
    a set of ideas formulated to explain something
  26. Association
    an observed relationship between two or more variables
  27. Cultural Resource Management
    deciding what needs saving when entire archaeological sites cannot be saved
  28. The truth of a scientific statement is confirmed by ___ ___.
    deciding what needs saving when entire archaeological sites cannot be saved
  29. Hypothesis
    a suggested but as yet unverified explanation
  30. Explicandum
    dependent variable
  31. Law
    a general principle/relationship
  32. What most characterizes anthropology among disciplines that study humans?
    It is holistic and comparative
  33. What is the most critical element of cultural traditions?
    their transmission through learning rather than through biological inheritance
  34. Over time, how has human reliance on cultural means of adaptation changed?
    Humans have become increasingly more dependant on them
  35. ___ anthropology was largely shaped by early American anthropologists' interests in Native Americans.
  36. The study of nonhuman primates is of special interest to which subdiscipline of anthropology?
    biological anthroplogy
  37. The Scientific Method
    characterizes any anthropological endeavor that formulates research questions and gathers/uses systematic data to test hypotheses
  38. Anthropology is unique among other social sciences in its emphasis on both ___ and ___ perspectives.
    holistic and cross-cultural
  39. Enculturation
    the process by which culture is learned and passed down through generations
  40. Symbol
    something (verbal or nonverbal) that stands for something else
  41. Core Values
    key, basic, or central values that integrate a culture
  42. Hominid
    any fossil or living human, chimp, or gorilla
  43. Hominins
    all the humsn species that have ever existed
  44. Universal
    something that exists in every culture
  45. Generality
    culture pattern or trait that exists in some but not all societies
  46. Particularity
    distinctive or unique culture trait, pattern, or integration 
  47. National Culture
    cultural features shared by citizens of the same nation
  48. Subcultures
    different cultural traditions associated with subgroups in the same nation
  49. International Culture
    cultural traditions that extend beyond national boundaries
  50. Ethnocentrism
    judging other cultures using one's own cultural standards
  51. Human Rights
    rights based on justice and morality beyond and superior to particular countries, cultures, and religions
  52. Culture Rights
    rights vested in religious and ethnic minorities and indigenous societies
  53. Cultural Relativism
    idea that to know another culture requires full understanding of its members' beliefs and motivations
  54. Intellectual Property Rights (IPR)
    an indiginous group's collective knowledge and its applications
  55. Diffusion
    borrowing of cultural traits between societies
  56. Acculturation
    an exchange of cultural features between groups in firsthand contact
  57. Independent Invention
    the independent development of a cultural feature in different societies
  58. Globalization
    the accelerating interdependence of nations in the world system today
  59. The "psychic unity" of humans, a doctrine that most anthropologists accept, state that ___.
    although individuals differ in their emotional and intellectual tendencies and capacities, all human populations have equivelant capacities for culture
  60. "Culture is contested" means that
    different groups in society struggle with one another over whose ideas, values, goods, and beliefs will prevail
  61. In anthropology, methodological cultural relativism is not a ___ position, but a ___ one.
    moral / methodological
  62. There were at least seven different regions where agriculture developed; therefore, agriculture is an example of ___ ___ (a mechanism of cultural change).
    independent invention
  63. According to Leslie White, culture, and therefore, humanity, came into existence when humans began to use ___.
  64. The term ___ refers to any fossil or living human, chimp, or gorilla, while the term ___ refers only to any fossil or living human.
    Hominid / Hominin
  65. Unlike human rights, ___ ___ are vested not only in individuals but in groups, including indiginous peoples and religious and ethnic minorities.
    Cultural Rights
  66. Interview Schedule
    form (guide) used to structure a formal, but personal, interview
  67. Questionnaire
    form used by sociologists to obtain comparable information from respondents
  68. Genealogical Method
    using diagrams and symbols to record kin connections

    developed specifically because of the importance of kinship and marriage relationships in nonindustrial societies
  69. Key Cultural Consultant
    Expert on a particular aspect of local life
  70. Life History
    of a key consultant; a personal portrait of someone's life in a culture
  71. Emic
    research strategy focusing on local explanations and meanings
  72. Cultural Consultants
    people who teach an ethnographer about their culture
  73. Etic
    research strategy emphasizing the ethnographer's explanations and categories
  74. Longitudinal Research
    long-term study, usually based on repeated visits
  75. Survey Research
    the study of society through sampling, statistical analysis, and impersonal data collection
  76. Sample
    a smaller study group chosen to represent a larger population
  77. Random Sample
    a sample in which all population members have an equal chance of inclusion
  78. Variables
    attributes that differ from one person or case to the next
  79. Complex Societies
    large, populous societies (i.e. nations) with stratification and a government
  80. Unilinear Evolutionism
    idea (19th century) of a single line or path of cultural evolution
  81. Historical Particularism
    (Boas) idea that histories are not comparable; diverse paths can lead to the same cultural result
  82. Functionalism
    approach focusing on the function of sociocultural practices in social systems
  83. Synchronic
    (studying societies) at one time
  84. Diachronic
    (studying societies) accross time
  85. Configurationalism
    view of culture as integrated and patterned
  86. Cultural Materialism
    (Harris) idea that cultural infrastructure determines structure and superstructure
  87. Superorganic
    (Kroeber) the special domain of culture, beyond the organic and inorganic realms
  88. Symbolic Anthropology
    the study of symbols in their social and cultural context
  89. Interpretive Anthropology
    (Geertz) the study of a culture as a system of meaning
  90. Agency
    the actions of individuals, alone and in groups, that create and transform culture
  91. Political Economy
    the web of interrelated economic and power relations in society
  92. One of the significant changes in the history of ethnography is ___
    larger numbers of ethnographies are being done about people in Western, industrialized nations
  93. In anthropology, the crisis in representation refers to ___.
    questions about the role of ethnographer and the nature of ethnographic authority
  94. Structuralism
    a theoretical approach that aims to discover relations, themes, and connections among aspects of culture

    has been faulted for being overly formal and for ignoring social processes
Card Set
ANTH 101 CH 1-3
What is Anthropology, Culture, Method and Theory in Cultural Anthropology