Social Work 350

  1. Epistemology
    A branch of Social Science (Philosophy) that examines the methods, origin and limits of human knowledge..ex..Religion, Tradition, Authority, Schien
  2. Methodology
    The Science of exploring procedures for scientific investigations
  3. Thing we already "Know" and share with our culture and those around us
    Agreement Reality
  4. Replication
    Repeating a Study and determining if the results are the same each time
  5. Traditional Knowledge
    Knowledge past down from generation to generation
  6. Knowledge from someone of expertise of that particular field ex...Dermatologist, Dentist, Accountant, Meteorologist
    Authority Knowledge
  7. Over-exaggerated view about a particular group
  8. A hypothesis created after confirming data has already been collected
    Ex-post Facto Hypothesis
  9. Logic and Knowledge based on experience
    Empirical Knowledge
  10. Two pillars of Science
    • 1. Logic
    • 2. Observation
  11. An idea that attempts to explain an occurance; An abstract statement
  12. Involved with what result is expected vs. what is actually observed.
    Data Analysis
  13. "Norm" accepted in Society. Ex...A college degree can help increase your chances of finding a job. Democrats usally vote for the Democratic party
    Social Regularities
  14. Special kind of concept; entity that can have different values ex..gender, height, hair color
  15. Components that are parts of a variable
  16. A variable that is presumed to cause or determine a dependant variable ; the variable that is being manipulated
    Independant Variable
  17. The variable that depends on another variable
    Dependant Variable
  18. Three factors of Social Economic Status
    • 1. Education
    • 2. Income
    • 3. Occupational Status
  19. Specific statement about relationships among concepts..
    ex-the relationship between Social Economic Status and Academic Achievement
  20. Abstract elements of a theory.
  21. General principles derived from specific observations
    Ex- Low SES contribute to low grades, while High SES contribute to higher grades, your duty is to find out why?
  22. Specific expectations of a hypothesis are developed on the basis of general principle
     Propositon: All unemployed spouse abusers recidivate
     Observation: Joe is an umemployed spouse abuser
     Conclusion: Joe will recidivate
  23. Theory aimed at understanding the "big picture" of an institution, whole societies and interactions among societies
    Ex- Schools, Churches, neighborhoods
  24. A theory aimed at undrstanding social life at the intimate level of individuals and their interactions
    Ex- Conflict relationship between teenager and their parent
  25. Name 3 Approaches for reducing Social Problems
    • 1. Give Money
    • 2. Volunteer
    • 3. Practicioner; working on the front lines..ex. Doctor, Social worker, EMT
  26. Faith-based and trust-based knowledge; Cannot be falsified
  27. Expertise/experience –based knowledge
    Can change
  28. Knowledge passed on from generation to generation
    Can sometimes hinder acceptance to new knowledge
  29. scientific methods used to investigate individuals, groups, societies and social processes; observational knowledge interpreted through theories
    Social Science
  30. Name 6 Flaws in Unscientific Epistemology
    • Inaccurate observation
    • Premature Closure
    • Overgeneralization
    • Selective observation
    • Ego Involvement
    • Ex-post facto hypothesizing
  31. Describe the 2 Elements of the Scientific Apporach
    • Theory: explanation
    • Method: finding out
  32. Name 6 elements of a Theory
    • 1. Can be falsified by anyone with training in sciences
    • 2. A set of empirically falsifiable, abstract statements about reality
    • 3. Describes why events occur
    • 4. Can be replaced with a better one
    • 5. A theory does not claim to be Truth or the only truth
    • 6. More than one theory can fit a set of observations
  33. A specified testable expectation about the world that follows from a proposition
    e.x. low SES students have lower grades than high SES students
  34. Deduction
    • 1. Theory
    • 2. Hypotheses
    • 3. Observation /Test hypotheses
    • 4. Confirmation - Problem: may begin with the wrong theory
  35. Induction
    • 1. Observations
    • 2. Empirical generalizations: Pattern
    • 3. Hypothesis (tenative)
    • 4. Theory - Problem: may develop wrong theory since observations may be explained by multiple theories
  36. Proposition1: All unemployed spouse abusers recidivate
    Observation1: Joe is an unemployed spouse abuser
    Conclusion: Joe will recidivate
  37. Specifying what we mean by a term
  38. Defining concepts based on what can be observed through senses
  39. The researcher has to remain free of Bias
    Value Free Knowledge
  40. All sciences follow the same rules of conceptualization, operationalization and value-free knowledge
    Unity of Science
  41. Used to define and describe social phenomenon

    e.x. To what organizations are LGBTQIA of color affiliated? What is the GPA of Black males compared to Black females at York College?
    Descriptive Research
  42. Used to find out how people get along in a setting, what meaning they give to actions and what issues concern them

    No expectations i.e. no theories applied
    e.x. What is the experience of Black men at York College
    Exploratory Research
  43. Used to identify cause and effect of social phenomenon and to predict how one phenomenon will change or vary in response to another

    e.x. Does SES negatively affect the GPA of Black men relative to Black women at York College?
    Explanatory Research
  44. Used to describe or identify the impact of social policies and programs

    e.x. What is the impact of the Black Male Initiative Program at York College? What is the impact of No Child Left Behind on student performance
    Evaluation Research
  45. Concepts are converted into numbers or attributes that can be ordered
    Quanitative Methods
  46. Depend on written and spoken words or observations that do not have direct numerical interpretation

    e.x. participant observation, intensive interviewing, focus groups
    Qualitative Methods
  47. Use of multiple methods to study a research question
  48. A question about the social world that is answered through the collection of firsthand, verifiable or empirical data
    Social Research Question
  49. What does IRB stand for?
    Institutional Review Board
  50. List 3 roles of the IRB
    • 1. Review research proposals
    • 2. Ensure that the risks to participants are minimal and justified
    • 3. Protect the rights and interests of those involved in research
  51. Action that is done for the benefit of others
  52. Do no harm! (even when person volunteers)
  53. Researcher cannot match responses to the participant
  54. Researcher can match responses to participant but promises not to make this information public
  55. Being aware of and responding to ways in which cultural factors and cultural differences influence what we investigate, how we investigate and how we interpret our findings
    Cultural Competence
  56. Belief in superiority of your own culture
  57. List 3 Types of Measurement Equivalences
    • 1. Linguistic: translation and back-translation
    • 2. Conceptual: observed behavior have same meaning across groups
    • 3. Metric: scores on measure are comparable across groups
  58. The major personality acheivement of adolescence and a cruial step toward becoming a productive, content adult
  59. Debriefing
    Interviewing subjects to learn about the impact of their experience in a project
  60. Informed Consent
    A norm in which subject base their participation in research projects on a full understanding of the possible risk involved
  61. Idiographic explanation
    A complete understanding about a particulat phenomenom that accounts all possible causal factors
  62. Nomothetic explanation
    A general understanding about a phenomenom that only indicates a small number of relevant causal factors
Card Set
Social Work 350
Practice Social Research