Behavioral Medications

  1. What are behavioral medications commonly used for?
    • Fears/phobias
    • Separation anxiety
    • Compulsive disorders
    • Age-related disorders (cognitive dysfunction)
  2. What mus also take place for behavioral medications to be successful?
    Behavioral modification through training
  3. How long can it take for behavioral drugs to reach its peak serum [ ]?
    Weeks to months
  4. What should be obtained from an owner prior to administration of behavioral drugs?  Why?
    Consent form in case of adverse effects of off-label meds
  5. Name the neurotransmitters in the brain that behavioral drugs alter.
    • Gammaaminobutyric Acid (GABA)
    • Acetylcholine
    • Norepinephrine
    • Serotonin
    • Dopamine
  6. What are the three types of behavioral drugs?
    • Anxiolytics
    • Antidepressants
    • Antipsychotics
  7. Anxiolytics in general are used for what?
    Decreasing anxiety and fear
  8. Anxiolytics, such as benzodiazepines, stimulate what receptors to have a depressing effect?
  9. At low doses benzodiazepines cause ______, and at higher doses they cause ______
    Decreased anxiety; sedation
  10. What are the 4 bezodiazepines used for behavioral drugs?
    • Diazepam
    • Alprazolam
    • Lorazepam
    • Clonazepam
  11. What are the trade names for:
    • Valium
    • Xanax
    • Ativan
  12. Benzodiazepines are used to tx what?
    • Fear
    • Aggression
    • Separation anxiety
    • Urine marking/spraying in cats
    • Compulsive disorders
    • Appetite stimulants
  13. Valium is used to tx what in cats?
    Feline psychogenic alopecia/dermatitis
  14. What is the trade name for Buspirone?  What classification is Buspirone in?
    Buspar; anxiolytics
  15. What is a non-benzodiazepine agent with fewer side effects than benzodiazepines?
    Buspirone (Buspar)
  16. Buspar is used in the tx of?
    • Fear/phobia
    • Urine spraying
  17. What are the adverse effects of Buspirone?
    • Increased affection in cats
    • Reversed roles (bullied cat becomes bully)
  18. What are the 3 classes of antidepressants?
    • Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)
    • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
    • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
  19. Name 2 TCAs.  Which one is veterinary approved?
    • Amitriptyline (Elavil)
    • Clomipramine (Clomicalm) -vet approved
  20. What are TCAs used for?
    • General anxiety disorders
    • Separation anxiety
    • Inappropriate urination in feline
    • Excessive grooming (cat/bird)
    • OCD (dogs)
    • Decrease aggressive behaviors
  21. What are precautions of TCAs?
    • May decrease seizure threshold
    • Patients w/ GI motility decreases, urinary retention, cardiac arrhythmias or glaucoma
    • Hyperthyroid patients & those receiving thyroid supplementation
  22. TCAs should not be given to animals also on ____ & _____
    MAOIs; SSRIs
  23. What are adverse effects of TCAs?
    • Anorexia
    • V/D
    • Elevated liver enzymes
    • Sedation/lethargy/depression
    • Dry mouth
  24. What is Clomipramine used for?
    • OCD
    • Male dominance aggression
    • Fearful/fear aggression behaviors
    • Noise phobias
    • Separation anxiety
  25. What is Amitriptyline used for?
    • Separation anxiety/general anxiety (dogs)
    • Excessive grooming, spraying & anxiety (cat)
    • Adjunctive tx of pruritis or chronic pain of neuropathic origin (dog/cat)
    • Feather plucking in birds
  26. What does SSRI stand for?
    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
  27. What are the 4 SSRIs talked about in class?  Include trade names.
    • Fluoxetine (Prozac®)
    • Fluvoxamine
    • Paroxetine (Paxil®)
    • Sertraline (Zoloft®)
  28. What is the MOA for SSRIs?
    Block removal of serotonin from the synaptic cleft which increases the amount of time that the NT is at the action site
  29. What is serotonin known to play a role in?
    Mood and behavior
  30. What are common uses for SSRIs?
    • OCD
    • Anxiety
    • Aggression
    • Inappropriate urination (feline)
  31. What are adverse effects of SSRIs?
    • Insomnia/hyperactivity
    • V/D
    • Anorexia
    • Elevated liver enzymes
    • Sedation/lethargy/depression
    • Dry mouth
  32. What does MAO stand for?  What do these block?
    • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors
    • Dopamine reuptake
  33. What is a common MAO?  Give trade name as well?
    Selegiline (Anipryl®)
  34. What are MAO-B inhibitor uses?
    • Pituitary dependent Cushing's
    • Cognitive dysfunction syndrome
  35. What is cognitive dysfunction syndrome thought to be influenced by?
    Decreased amounts of dopamine in certian parts of the brain
  36. Anipryl® contains risk fro human abuse.  Why is this?
    2 of the 3 metabolites are amphetamine and methamphetamine
  37. What are adverse effects of Selegiline?
    • V/D
    • Restlessness
    • Lethargy
    • Salivation
    • Anorexia
    • Diminished hearing/deafness
  38. What is the MOA of synthetic progestins?
    Inhibition of pituitary sectretion of gonadotropins (FSH, LH) which affects hormone levels
  39. What are two synthetic progestins?  Give generic and trade names.
    • Megestrol acetate (Ovaban®)
    • Medroxyprogesterone (Depo-Provera®)
  40. Megestrol acetate is used for what in cats?
    Urine marking, intraspecies aggression and anxiety
  41. What are 2 pheromone products used in the market?
    Feliway and D.A.P.
  42. What are 2 products used to prevent coprophagia?
    ForBid and D-Tur
  43. What is Medroxyprogesterone used for?
    • Inter-male aggression in dogs
    • Feline psychogenic alopecia/dermatitis
  44. What are side effects of progestins?
    • Adrenocortical suppression
    • Adrenal atrophy
    • Diabetes mellitus
    • PU/PD
    • Weight gain
    • Mammary enlargement/neoplasia
    • Endometritis
    • Personality changes
    • Pyometra
  45. What are commonly used for antipsychotic drugs?
    Phenothiazines: Acepromazine & Chlorpromazine
  46. What are antipsychotics used for?
    Decrease inappropriate behavioral responses (phobias)
  47. What do antipsychotics block?  What does this cause?
    Dopamine receptors which causes a decreases in vomiting and abnormal emotionally driven behaviors
  48. What are the side effects of phenothiazine tranquilizers?
    • Decreased interest in the environment
    • Increased aggression due to blocking adaptive learned behaviors
Card Set
Behavioral Medications
Behavioral meds