The variable being predicted in a regression analysis; the dependent/outcome variable
Cross-lagged panel correlation (175)
A research design where 2 variables are measured at 2 points in time & correlations between the variables are examined across time
Factor (182)
1) (Experiment) An independent variable
2) (Factors analysis) Underlying dimension assumed to account for relationship among variables
Factor Analysis (181)
A class of multivariate statistical techniques that identifies the underlying dimensions (factors) that account for the relationships among variables
Factor loading (182)
(Factor analysis) The correlation between a variable & a factor
Factor matrix (182)
A table that shows the results of a factor analysis; Rows are variables, columns are factors
Fit index (177)
(In structural equations modeling) A statistic that indicates how well a hypothesized model fits the data
Hierarchical multiple regression (172)
A multiple regression analysis, the researcher specifies the order that the predictor variables will be entered into the regression equation
Multilevel modeling (180)
An approach to analyzing data that have a nested structure in which variables are measured at different levels of analysis; ex. when researchers study preexisting groups they use multilevel modeling to analyze the influence of group-level variables & individual-level variables simultaneously
Multiple correlation coefficient (175)
The correlation between one variable & a set of other variables; other used in multiple regression to express the strength of the relationship between the outcome variable & the set of predictor variables
Multiple regression analysis (170)
A statistical procedure by which an equation is derived that can predict one variable (the outcome variable) from a set of other variables (the predictor variable)
Nested designs (180)
Research design where participants are drawn from various groups; The responses of participants who come from a single group are not independent of each other, which raises special analysis issues
Outcome variable (169)
The variable being predicted in a multiple regression analysis; also called criterion or dependent variable
Predictor variable (169)
A variable used to predict scores on the criterion or dependent variable in regression analysis
Regression analysis (168)
A statistical procedure by which an equation is developed to predict scores on one variable based on scores from another variable
Regression coefficient (169)
The slope of a regression line
Regression constant (169)
The y-intercept in a regression equation; the value of ywhen x = 0
Regression equation (168)
An equation from which one can predict scores on one variable from one or more other variables
Simultaneous multiple regression (170)
A multiple regression analysis where all of the predictors are entered into the regression equation in a single step; also called standard multiple regression
Stepwise multiple regression (171)
A multiple regression analysis where predictors enter the regression equation in order of their ability to predict unique variance in the outcome variable
Structure equations modeling (177)
A statistical analysis that tests the viability of alternative causal explanations of variables that correlate with one another
Coercion to participate (337)
When people agree to participate in a study because of pressure from someone of authority or influence
Confidentiality (340)
Maintaining privacy of participants
Cost-benefit analysis (331)
Decision making where costs and risks of a study are compared to its benefits
Debriefing (340)
Procedure where participants are told the nature of a study after it's completed
Deontology (330)
An ethical approach = right and wrong should be judged according to a universal moral code
Ethical skepticism (330)
An ethical approach that denies the existence of concrete moral codes
Institutional Review Board (IRB) (333)
A committee mandated by federal regulations that must evaluate the ethics of research conducted at institutions that receive federal funding
Invasion of privacy (336)
Violation of a participants right to determine how, when, or where they will be studied
Minimal risk (338)
Risk to participants that is no greater than they would be likely to encounter in daily life or during routine examinations
Scientific misconduct (346)
Unethical behaviors involving the conduct of scientific research, such as dishonesty, data fabrication, and plagiarism
Utilitarian (33)
An ethical approach - right and wrong should be judged in terms of the consequences of one's actions