Adobe Photoshop CS6 Classroom in a Book All Review Questions

  1. (1) 1. Describe two types of images you can open in Photoshop.
    You can scan a photograph, transparency, negative, or graphic into the program; capture a digital video image; or import artwork created in a drawing program.  You can also import digital photos.
  2. (1) 2. How do you open image files using Adobe Bridge?
    Choose File > Browse In Bridge in Photoshop to jump to Bridge.  Then, locate the image file you want to open, and double-click its thumbnail to open it in Photoshop.
  3. (1) 3. How do you select tools in Photoshop?
    Click a tool in the Tools panel, or press the tool's keyboard shortcut.  A selected tool remains active until you select a different tool.  To select a hidden tool, either use a keyboard shortcut to toggle through the tools, or hold down the mouse button on the tool in the Tools panel to open a pop-up menu of the hidden tools.
  4. (1) 4. Describe two ways to change your view of an image.
    Choose commands from the View menu to zoom in on or out from an image, or to fit it onscreen, or use the zoom tools and click or drag over an image to enlarge or reduce the view.  You can also use keyboard shortcuts or the Navigator panel to control the display of an image.
  5. (1) 5. What are two ways to get more information about Photoshop?
    The Photoshop Help system includes full information about Photoshop features plus keyboard shortcuts, task-based topics, and illustrations.  Photoshop also includes a link to the Adobe Systems Photoshop web page for additional information on services, products, and tips pertaining to Photoshop.
  6. (2) 1. What does resolution mean?
    The term resolution refers to the number of pixels that describe an image and establish its detail.  Image resolution and monitor resolution are measured in pixels per inch (ppi).  Printer, or output, resolution is measured in ink dots per inch (dpi).
  7. (2) 2. What does the Crop tool do?
    You can use the Crop tool to trim, scale, or straighten an image.
  8. (2) 3. How can you adjust the tone and color of an image in Camera Raw?
    Use the White Balance tool to adjust the color temperature.  Then fine-tune the color and tone using sliders in the Basic panel.
  9. (2) 4. What tools can you use to remove blemishes in an image?
    The Healing Brush, Spot Healing Brush, Patch tool, and Clone Stamp tools, as well as content-aware fill, let you replace unwanted portions of an image with other areas of the image.  The Clone Stamp tool copies the source area exactly; the Healing Brush and Spot Healing Brush tools blend the area with surrounding pixels.  The Spot Healing Brush tool doesn't require a source area at all; it "heals" areas to match the surrounding pixels.  The Patch tool in Content-Aware mode, and content-aware fill replace a selection with content that matches the surrounding area.
  10. (2) 5. What effect does the Unsharp Mask filter have on an image?
    The Unsharp Mask filter adjusts the contrast of the edge detail and creates the illusion of a more focused image.
  11. (3) 1. Once you've made a selection, what area of the image can be edited?
    Only the area within an active selection can be edited.
  12. (3) 2. How do you add to and subract from a selection?
    To add to a selection, click the Add To Selection button in the options bar, and then click the area you want to add.  To subtract from a selection, click the Subtract From Selection button in the options bar, and then click the area you want to subtract.  You can also add to a selection by pressing Shift as you drag or click; to subtract, press Option as you drag or click.
  13. (3) 3. How can you move a selection while you're drawing it?
    To reposition a selection, without releasing the mouse button, hold down the spacebar and drag.
  14. (3) 4. When drawing a selection with the Lasso tool, how should you finish drawing the selection to ensure it's the shape you want?
    To make sure that the selection is the shape you want when you use the Lasso tool, end the selection by dragging across the starting point of the selection.  If you start and stop the selection at different points, Photoshop draws a straight line between the start point of the selection and the end point of the selection.
  15. (3) 5. What does the Quick Selection tool do?
    The Quick Selection tool expands outward from where you click to automatically find and follow defined edges in the images.
  16. (3) 6. How does the Magic Wand tool determine which areas of an image to select?  What is tolerance, and how does it affect a selection?
    The Magic Wand tool selects adjacent pixels based on their similarity in color.  The Tolerance value determines how many color tones the Magic Wand tool will select.  The higher the tolerance setting, the more tones are selected.
  17. (4) 1. What is the advantage of using layers?
    Layers let you move and edit different parts of an image as discrete objects.  You can also hide individual layers as you work on other layers.
  18. (4) 2. When you create a new layer, where does it appear in the Layers panel stack?
    A new layer always appears immediately above the active layer.
  19. (4) 3. How can you make artwork on one layer appear in front of artwork on another layer?
    You can make artwork on one layer appear in front of artwork on another layer by dragging layers up or down the stacking order in the Layers panel, or by using the Layer > Arrange subcommands--Bring To Front, Bring Forward, Sent To Back, and Send Backward.  However, you can't change the layer position of a background layer.
  20. (4) 4. How can you apply a layer style?
    To apply a layer style, select the layer, and then click the Add A Layer Style button in the Layers panel, or choose Layer > Layer Style > [style].
  21. (4) 5. When you've completed your artwork, what can you do to minimize the file size without changing the quality or dimensions?
    To minimize file size, you can flatten the image, which merges all the layers onto a single background.  It's a good idea to duplicate image files with layers intact before you flatten them, in case you have to make changes to a layer later.
  22. (5) 1. What happens to camera raw images when you edit them in Camera Raw?
    A camera raw file contains unprocessed picture data from a digital camera's image sensor.  Camera raw files give photographers control over interpreting the image data, rather than letting the camera make the adjustments and conversions.  When you edit the image in Camera Raw, it preserves the original raw file data.  This way, you can edit the image as you desire, export it, and keep the original intact for future use or other adjustments.
  23. (5) 2. What is the advantage of the Adobe Digital Negative (DNG) file format?
    The Adobe Digital Negative (DNG) file format contains the raw image data from a digital camera as well as metadata that defines what the image data means.  DNG is an industry-wide standard for camera raw image data that helps photographers manage proprietary camera raw file formats and provides a compatible archival format.
  24. (5) 3. How do you correct red eye in Photoshop?
    Red eye occurs when the retinas of a subject's eyes are reflected by the camera flash.  To correct red eye in Adobe Photoshop, zoom in to the subject's eyes, select the Red Eye tool, and then click the red eyes.
  25. (5) 4. Describe how to fix common camera lens flaws in Photoshop.  What causes these defects?
    The Lens Correction filter fixes common camera lens flaws, such as barrel and pincushion distortion, in which straight lines bow out towards the edges of the image (barrel) or bend inward (pincushion); chromatic aberration, where a color fringe appears along the edges of image objects; and vignetting at the edges of an image, especially corners, that are darker than the center.  Defects can occur from incorrectly setting the lens's focal length or f-stop, or by tilting the camera vertically or horizontally.
  26. (6) 1. What is the benefit of using a quick mask?
    Quick masks are helpful for creating quick, one-time selections.  In addition, using a quick mask is an easy way to edit a selection using the painting tools.
  27. (6) 2. What happens to a quick mask when you deselect it?
    The quick mask disappears when you deselect it.
  28. (6) 3. When you save a selection as a mask, where is the mask stored?
    Masks are saved in channels, which can be thought of as storage areas for color and selection information in an image.
  29. (6) 4. How can you edit a mask in a channel once you've saved it?
    You can paint on a mask in a channel using black, white, and shades of gray.
  30. (6) 5. How do channels differ from layers?
    Channels are used as storage areas for saved selections.  Unless you explicitly display a channel, it does not appear in the image or print.  Layers can be used to isolate various parts of an image so that they can edited as discrete objects with the painting or editing tools or other effects.
  31. (7) 1. How does Photoshop treat type?
    Type in Photoshop consists of mathematically defined shapes that describe the letters, numbers, and symbols of a typeface.  When you add type to an image in Photoshop, the characters are composed of pixels and have the same resolution as the image file.  However, Photoshop preserves the vector-based typed outlines and uses them when you scale or resize type, save a PDFor EPS file, or print the image to a PostScript printer.
  32. (7) 2. How is a text layer the same as or different from other layers in Photoshop?
    Type that is added to an image appears in the Layers panel as a text layer that can be edited and managed in the same way as any other kind of layer.  You can add and edit the text, change the orientation of the type, and apply anti-aliasing as well as move, restack, copy, and change the options for layers.
  33. (7) 3. What is a clipping mask, and how do you make one from type?
    A clipping mask is an object or group whose shape masks other artwork so that only areas that lie within the shape are visible.  To convert the letters on any text layer to a clipping mask, select both the text layer and the layer you want to show through the letters, and then choose Create Clipping Mask from the Layers panel menu.
  34. (7) 4. What is a paragraph style?
    A paragraph style is a collection of type attributes that you can quickly apply to an entire paragraph.
  35. (8) 1. How can the Pen tool be useful as a selection tool?
    If you need to create an intricate selection, it can be easier to draw the path with the Pen tool and then convert the path to a selection.
  36. (8) 2. What is the difference between a bitmap and a vector graphic?
    Bitmap, or raster, images are based on a grid of pixels and are appropriate for continuous-tone images such as photographs or artwork created in painting programs.  Vector graphics are made up of shapes based on mathematical expressions and are appropriate for illustrations, type, and drawings that require clear, smooth lines.
  37. (8) 3. What is a shape layer?
    A shape layer is a vector layer that contains either a shape (including fill and stroke), pixels, or a path.
  38. (8) 4. What tools can you use to move and resize paths and shapes?
    You use the Path Selection tool and the Direct Selection tool to move, resize, and edit shapes.  You can also modify and scale a shape or path by choosing Edit > Free Transform Path.
  39. (8) 5. What are Smart Objects, and what is the benefit of using them?
    Smart Objects are vector objects that you can place and edit in Photoshop without a loss of quality.  Regardless of how often you scale, rotate, skew, or otherwise transform a Smart Object, it retains sharp, precise edges.  A great benefit of using Smart Objects is that you can edit the original object in the authoring application, such as Illustrator, and the changes will be reflected in the placed Smart Object in your Photoshop image file.
  40. (9) 1. What is the purpose of saving selections?
    By saving a selection, you can create and reuse time-consuming selections and uniformly select artwork in an image.  You can also combine selections or create new selections by adding to or subtracting from existing selections.
  41. (9) 2. How can you preview filter effects before you commit to them?
    Use the Filter Gallery to test different filters with different settings to see the effect they'll have on your image.
  42. (9) 3. What are the differences between using a Smart Filter and a regular filter to apply effects to an image?
    Smart Filters are nondestructive: They can be adjusted, turned off and on, and deleted at any time.  In contrast, regular filters permanently change an image; once applied, they cannot be removed.  Smart Filters can be applied only to a Smart Object layer.
  43. (9) 4. Describe one use for the Match Color feature.
    You can use the Match Color feature to match color between different images, such as to adjust the facial skin tones in photographs--or to match color between different layers in the same image.  You can also use the feature to create unusual color effects.
  44. (10) What is a keyframe, and how do you create one?
    A keyframe marks the point in time where you specify a value, such as a position, size, or style.  To create a change over time, you must have at least two keyframes: one for the state at the beginning of the change and one for the state at the end.  To create an initial keyframe, click the stopwatch icon next to the attribute you want to animate for the layer.  Photoshop creates additional keyframes each time you change the values of that attribute.
  45. (10) 2. How do you add a transition between clips?
    To add a transition, click the Transition icon in the upper left corner of the Timeline panel, and then drag a transition onto a clip.
  46. (10) 3. How do you render a video?
    To render a video, choose File > Export > Render Video, or click the Render Video button in the lower left corner of the Timeline panel.  Then select the video settings that are appropriate for your intended output.
  47. (11) 1. What does the Mixer Brush do that other brushes don't?
    The Mixer Brush mixes the color of the paintbrush with colors on the canvas.
  48. (11) 2. How do you load a mixer brush?
    You can load a mixer brush by sampling a color, either by using the Eyedropper tool or keyboard shortcuts (Option-click).  Or, you can choose Load Brush from the pop-up menu in the options bar to load the brush with the foreground color.
  49. (11) 3. How do you clean a brush?
    To clean a brush, choose Clean Brush from the pop-up menu in the options bar.
  50. (11) 4. How can you display the names of brush presets?
    To display brush presets by name, open the Brush Presets panel, and then choose Large List (or Small List) from the Brush Presets panel menu.
  51. (11) 5. What is the Bristle Brush Preview, and how can you hide it?
    The Bristle Brush Preview shows you the direction the brush strokes are moving.  It's available if OpenGL is enabled.  To hide or show the Bristle Brush Preview, click the Toggle The Bristle Brush Preview icon at the bottom of the Brush panel or the Brush Presets panel.
  52. (11) 6. What is an erodible tip?
    An erodible tip erodes, changing thickness, as you paint or draw.  It's similar to the way a pencil or pastel tip changes shape as it erodes.
  53. (12) 1. How does a 3D layer differ from other layers in Photoshop?
    A 3D layer behaves like any other layer--you can apply layer styles, mask it, and so on.  However, unlike a regular layer, a 3D layer also contains one or more meshes, which define 3D objects.  You can work with meshes and the materials, maps, and textures they contain.  You can also adjust the lighting for a 3D layer.
  54. (12) 2. How can you change the camera view?
    To change the camera view, you can move the Camera widget, or Control-click the widget to choose a camera view preset.
  55. (12) 3. How do you apply materials to an object?
    To apply materials, select the material component in the 3D panel, and then select materials and settings in the Properties panel.
  56. (12) 4. Which color represents each axis on the 3D Axis widget?
    In the 3D Axis widget, the red arrow represents the X axis; the green arrow represents the Y axis, and the blue arrow represents the Z axis.
  57. (12) 5. How do you render a 3D scene?
    To render a 3D scene, select Scene in the 3D panel, and then click the Render button at the bottom of the Properties panel.
  58. (13) 1. What are slices? How do you create them?
    Slices are rectangular areas of an image that you define for individual web optimization.  You can add animated GIFs, URL links, and rollovers to slices.  You can create image slices with the Slice tool or by converting layers into slices using the Layer menu.
  59. (13) 2. What is image optimization, and how do you optimize images for the web?
    Image optimization is the process of choosing file format, resolution, and quality settings for an image to keep it small, useful, and visually appealing when published to the web.  Continuous-tone images are typically optimized in JPEG format; solid-color images or those with repetitive color areas are typically optimized as GIF.  To optimize images, choose File > Save For Web.
  60. (13) 1. How can you create a slide show for the web?
    To create a slide show for use on the web, use Bridge.  Select the files you want to include, and then select Web Gallery in the Output panel in Bridge.  Set the appropriate settings, and save the gallery.  Bridge creates an index.html file with slide show and gallery controls that link to the files you selected.
  61. (14) 1. What steps should you follow to reproduce color accurately?
    To reproduce color accurately, first calibrate your monitor, and then use the Color Settings diaog box to specify which color spaces to use.  For example, you can specify which RGB color space to use for online images, and which CMYK color space to use for images that will be printed.  You can then proof the image, check for out-of-gamut colors, adjust colors as needed, and--for printed images--create color separations.
  62. (14) 2. What is a gamut?
    A gamut is the range of colors that can be reproduced by a color model or device.  For example, the RGB and CMYK color models have different gamuts, as do any two RGB scanners.
  63. (14) 3. What is a color profile?
    A color profile is a description of a device's color space, such as the CMYK color space of a particular printer.  Applications such as Photoshop can interpret color profiles in an image to maintain consistent color across different applications, platforms, and devices.
  64. (14) 4. What are color separations?
    Color separations are separate plates for each ink used in a document.  Often, you'll print color separations for the cyan, magenta, yellow, and black (CMYB) inks.
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Adobe Photoshop CS6 Classroom in a Book All Review Questions
All lesson review questions.