SOPC Final - last weeks

  1. Beliefs about old people/aging
    Negative beliefs correlate with poorer memory, worse health
  2. Ohio Longitudinal Study of Aging and Retirement
    Positive perceptions of aging: lived 7.5 years longer

    People 50+ followed for 23 years...

    Baseline measures: Perceptions of aging, actual age, SES, loneliness, functional health
  3. Aging study - Levy et al. (2009)
    Negative age stereotypes early in life (18-49) = worse health and greater risk of heart attack or stroke
  4. Activating stereotypes in the lab (Levy, 1996)
    Exposing elderly people to stereotype words subliminally (55 ms)–E.g., senile, forgets, confused, alzheimer’s–E.g., wise, enlightened, accomplished, alert
  5. Meta-analysis: Bond & DePaulo (2008) - Detecting deception
    Assessed the variability in everyone’s lie-detection skills - 247 samples; 19,801 judges; 2,945 senders

    Lie-detection vs. lie-telling abilities, Credibility as an important factor
  6. Male circumcision and HIV
    HIV prevalence is lower where there’s a higher % of circumcised males

    Circumcision predicts lower risk of HIV contraction

    27 studies, risk for HIV infection was 44% lower in circumcised men
  7. Other findings: Circumcision
    Infant urinary tract infections: 12 fold decreased risk in circumcised boys

    Syphilis: 1.5-3.0 fold decrease in circumcised men

    HPV: 63% reduction

    Cervical cancer in female partners: 2.0 –5.8 times more frequent in women with uncircumcised partners
  8. Cell phones & brain tumors
    Most studies find no relationship between the two variables

    Lahkolaet al., 2006 (meta-analysis) - 12 published studies (N = 2780)

    Overall, no association between cell phone use and brain tumor diagnosis–Not even for regular users of 5+ years
  9. Cell phones & tumors - Khuranaet al., 2009 (meta-analysis)
    Users of 10+ years - 11 published studies

    Found significant increases in tumor risk (for 2 of 3 types of tumors,) but only ipsilateralto cell phone use

    Another meta-analysis (10+ yrs) found an overall association
  10. Decision Making
    We need to determine what information is instrumental to our choice

    Noninstrumental information –has no value in decision (but may seem relevant)

    Pursuing missing information can lend greater weight to that information
  11. Problem 1 (Register for class) - Decision Making
    Uncertain - 42% register, 2% don't, 56% wait

    After waiting - 29% register, 27% don't

    • (Simple) Certain total (less popular professor) - 82% register, 18% don't
    • Uncertain total - 71% register, 29% don't
  12. Problem 2 (Accepting student) - Decision Making
    (Simple) Certain: 57% accept, 43% reject

    Uncertain: (immediately) 21% accept, 5% reject, 74% wait; (after waiting) 25% accept, 49% reject

    Uncertain total: 46% accept, 54% reject
  13. Problem 2 (Mortgage application) - Decision Making
    (Simple) Certain: 29% approve, 71% reject

    Uncertain: (immediately) 2% approve, 23 reject, 75% wait; (after waiting) 54% approve, 21% reject

    Uncertain total: 56% approve, 44% reject
  14. Problem 2 (CD player) - Decision Making
    (Simple) Certain: 91% buy, 9% don't

    Uncertain: (immediately) 26% buy, 5% don't, 69% wait; (after waiting) 29% buy, 40% don't

    Uncertain total: 55% buy, 45% don't
  15. Decision Making - Kidney
    Simple Certain: 44% would donate, 56% would not

    Uncertain: Get tested? 69% yes, 31% no

    You're a match, donate? 65% yes, 35% no
  16. Decision making in real life
    Uncertainty often leads to seek more information. We need to determine whether the missing information is important.
  17. Ethics in research
    Ethics intertwined with research methods

    Modern ethical guidelines shaped by early psychological research
  18. Ethical Considerations
    Researchers bound by APA Guidebook of Ethical Principles, Federal guidelines, State and local laws

    University research is supervised by IRB = Institutional Review Board, Several ethical issues that are of concern to IRBs
  19. 1. Involving participants without their knowledge/consent
    Issue: No informed consent

    No informed consent is OK if: Behavior is public, No invasion of privacy, Participants are not inconvenienced, Participants are anonymous
  20. 2. Coercing people to participate
    Example: Research in organizational setting -- Could be implied pressure to cooperate

    Research with intro psych students?
  21. 3. Withholding true nature of research
    Example: Elaborate cover stories
  22. 4. Deception
    Confederates: Getting rejected, Attractive confederate flirting with you

    False feedback: Success vs. failure, Feedback about your personality -- Example: Twengeet al. (2001)

    Deceiving about drugs taken -- Debriefing is critical
  23. 5. Exposure to physical or mental stress
    • The “classic” social psych studies
    • Exposure to disturbing stimuli
    • Studying negative emotions
    • Mortality salience
    • Do potential benefits outweigh the risks? -- Male circumcision experiment
  24. Putting the researcher assistants at risk
    Staged assault (Harariet al.); Staring at people (Ellsworth et al., 1972); Urinal study (Middlemistet al., 1976)
  25. 6. Privacy and Confidentiality of data
    • Are responses anonymous?
    • How are data handled after collected? -- Make data anonymous, Maintain the security of the data
  26. Which of the following is the same as a panel survey design?
    • a) successive independent samples design
    • b) longitudinal design
    • c) cross-sectional design
    • d) epsem design
    • e) quota design
  27. Variance in a behavior that is related to the variables that an investigator is investigating is:
    • A) systematic variance.
    • B) standard variance.
    • C) error variance.
    • D) total variance.
  28. Which of the following is used to eliminate demand characteristics?
    • a) random assignment
    • b) a double-blind procedure
    • c) matching
    • d) counterbalancing
    • e) confounding
  29. What is an operational definition?
    Defining a construct by how it is measured or manipulated in a particular study
  30. Name 3 characteristics of pseudoscience (how it differs from science).
Card Set
SOPC Final - last weeks
SOPC Final - last weeks