nervous system

  1. What is the CNS consist of?
    brain and spinal cord
  2. What does the PNS consist of?
    all nervous structures except the brain and spinal cord
  3. What is a neuron?
    structural and functional unit of the nervous system; nerve cell
  4. What is an internuncial neuron?
    neuron interposed between connecting two other neurons
  5. What is a neuroglia?
    supportive cell of the nervous system; includes microglia, oligodendroglia, and astrocytes
  6. What is a dendrite?
    cell process which brings impulses toward the cell body
  7. What is an axon?
    cell process which takes impulses away from the nerve cell body
  8. What is a synapse?
    • area of functional continuity between neurons; where a nerve impulse is transmitted from one neuron to another
    • relaying of info between neurons
  9. What is a receptor?
    sense organs/cells which receive stimuli from the environment
  10. What is an effector?
    muscles and glands which respond to impulses carried to them by nerves
  11. What is a reflex?
    involuntary, unlearned response to stimuli; a reflex arc consists of an afferent neuron, a central neuron, and an efferent neuron
  12. What is a ganglia?
    group of nerve cell bodies outside the CNS (in the PNS)
  13. What is a nuclei?
    group of nerve cell bodies within the CNS (brain or spinal cord)
  14. What is gray matter?
    areas in the CNS consisting of nonmyelinated nerve tissue (nerve cell bodies)
  15. What is white matter?
    substance found in the spinal cord and brain composed of myelinated nerve fibers
  16. What is reticular matter?
    intermingling of white and gray matter
  17. What is myelin?
    • a white fatty material which coats the nerve processes
    • insulated the axon and increases the speed of impulses
  18. What is decussation?
    intersection or crossing
  19. What is contralateral?
    opposite side
  20. What is ipsilateral?
    same side
  21. What are some examples of components within the nervous system?
    • sensations such as:
    • pain
    • temperature
    • touch
    • proprioception

    these sensations are transmitted to the CNS via sensory tracts and allows the individual to interact with their environment
  22. What are the 4 lobes of the cerebrum?
    • frontal (primary motor)
    • parietal (primary sensory)
    • temporal (primary auditory)
    • occipital (primary visual)
  23. What does the frontal lobe control?
    • primary motor cortex
    • exhibits influence over:
    • judgement
    • attention
    •  mood
    • abstract thinking
    • agression
  24. What is broca's area?
    • motor region for speech in the frontal lobe
    • LEFT= affects movement of mouth for speech
    • RIGHT= affects nonverbal communication
  25. What is the primary motor cortec responsible for?
    contralateral voluntary control of the UEs and facial mvmts

    other motor areas, such as the premotor area, control trunk musculature and postural changes. the supplementary motor area controls orientation of the eyes and head, initiation of mvmt and bilateral sequential mvmt
  26. What does the parietal lobe control?
    • primary sensory cortex
    • perception of sensory info and provides meaning to stimuli
    • perceptual learning
    • short term memory function
    • -person may not like to be touched
  27. What does the temporal lobe control?
    • primary auditory cortex
    • visual perception
    • long term memory
    • musical discrimination
    • -pt may need increased time and write things down
  28. What is wernicke's area?
    • in the temporal lobe
    • hears and understands spoken language
    • pt may not hear or understand
  29. What does the occiptal lobe control?
    • primary visual cortex
    • organization/interpretation of visual info
    • eyes take in visual info and send to cortex
  30. Which hemisphere of the cerebrum do pts process info in a linear manner?
    left hemisphere-95% of population

    • produce written/spoken info
    • logical/organized manner
    • analytical
    • rational
    • positive emotions such as love/happiness
  31. What are some common impairments seen in left hemisphere injuries of the cerebrum?
    • difficulty initiating, sequencing, and processing a task
    • apraxia (inability to plan motor tasks)
    • difficulting producing or comphrending speech
    • anxiety
    • perseveration (stuck on one thing, verbal or motor, and repeat it over and over)
    • speech or motor behaviors
  32. Which hemisphere of the cerebrum involves nonverbal and artistic abilities?
    right hemisphere

    • process info in a holistic manner
    • process nonverbal stimuli such as designs complex shapes, speech info
    • eye-hand coordination
    • spatial relationships
    • ability to communicate nonverbally
    • sustaining posture or mvmt
    • perceiving negative emotions such as unhappiness or anger
  33. What are some common impairments seen in right hemisphere injuries of the cerebrum?
    • poor judgement
    • unrealistic expectations
    • denial of deficits/disability
    • disturbances in body image
    • irritability
    • fatigue
  34. What does the hypothalamus regulate?
    • homeostasis
    • thirst
    • hunger
    • digestion
    • body temp
    • BP
    • sexual activity
    • sleep-wake cycle
  35. What system guides emotions that reguate behaviors?
    limbic system
  36. What controls balance and coordination?

    located below the occiptal lobe
  37. What are the 3 parts of the brain stem?
    • midbrain -reflex center for auditory, visual, and tactile responses
    • pons- reflex center for head orientation in response to auditory or visual stimulation (cranial nerves 5 and 7 are found here)
    • medulla- contains motor and sensory nuclei for neck and mouth and control center for heart and respiration rates
  38. What is the spinothalamic tract?
    • ascending sensory tract that controls pain and temperature
    • anterior in the spinal cord
  39. What is the corticospinal tract?
    major motor tract; skilled mvmts of extremities that crosses from one side to the other in the brain stem

    common sign of damage is the babinski sign
  40. What is the babinski sign?
    great toe extends and other toes sply when an object or finger is run along the lateral border of the foot
  41. What is the inabilty to plan motor tasks?
  42. What nervous system provides reactions to outside stimulation?
  43. What nervous sytem is involuntary and innervated glands, smooth muscle, and the myocardium?

    maintains homeostasis, regulation of digestion, circulation, and cardiac muscle contraction
  44. Within what nervous system do neurons not have an ability to regenerate?
  45. Within what nervous system is it possible for neurons to regenerate and at what rate?
    • PNS
    • 1.0mm per day depending on the size of the nerve fiber
  46. What are some indications of an upper motor neuron lesion?
    • found in descending motor tracts within the cerebral cortex
    • indicated by spasticity, muscle weakness, hyperreflexia, mild disuse atrophy, abnormal reflexes
    • possibilty of clonus

    • head inury
    • cerebral palsy
    • CVA
    • MS
    • brain tumors
  47. What are some indications of a lower motor neuron lesion?
    • affects nerves or axons at or below the level of the brain stem
    • indicated by abnormal EMG potentials, fasciculations, paralysis, flaccidity, weakening of muscles, absent reflexes, atrophy of skeletal muscles

    • spinal cord injury
    • trauma
    • infection
    • poliomyelitis
    • spinal cord tumors
    • muscular dystrophy
  48. What is the inability to initiate mvmt?
  49. What is apraxia?
    inability to perform purposeful learned mvmts, although there is no sensory or motor impairment
  50. What is the inability to formulate an initial motor plan and sequence tasks where the propprioceptive input necessary for mvmt is impaired?
    ideational apraxia
  51. What is idemotor apraxia?
    a person plans a mvmt or task but cant volitionally perform it
  52. What is the inability to perform coordinated mvmts?

    drunken soldier
  53. What is bradykinesia?
    mvmt that is very slow
  54. What is broca's aphasia?
    speech is difficult, but comprehension is usually functional or normal
  55. What is an involuntary alternating spasmotic contraction of a muscle precipitated by a quick stretch reflex?

    characteristic of UMN lesion
  56. What is another name for double vision?
  57. What is dysarthria?
    slurred and impaired speech due to motor deficit of the tongue and other muscles essential to speech
  58. What is the inability to perform rapidly alternating mvmts?
  59. What is dysmetria?
    inability to control the range of a mvmt and the force of muscular activity

    pt may over-shoot or under-shoot -> put a weight on them
  60. What is the inability to properly swallow?
  61. What is emotional lability?
    characteristic of right hemisphere infarct. inability to control emotions and outburts of laughing or crying that are inconsistent with the situation
  62. What is expressive aphasia?
    can receive info but cant express
  63. What is global aphasia?
    present with both expressive and receptive deficits. prognosis for recovery with speech is usually poor. pts speech is nonfluent and comprehension is significantly impaired
  64. What is the condition of weakness on one side of the body?
  65. What is the condition of paralysis on one side of the body?
  66. What is the loss of the right or left half of the visual field in both eyes?
  67. What is the ability to perceive the direction and extent of mvmt of a joint or body part?
  68. What is neglect?
    inability to interpret stimuli on one side of the body due to a lesion on the other side of the brain
  69. What is perservation?
    repeatedly performing same segment of a task or repeatedly saying the same word/phrase without a purpose
  70. What is the ability to perceive the static position of a joint or body part?
  71. What is receptive aphasia?
    can express but cant receive
  72. What is rigidity?
    state of severe hypertonicity where sustained muscle contraction does not allow for any mvmt for a specific joint

    stiffness, but does have a little give
  73. What is the result of brain damage that presents with mass mvmt patterns that are primitive in nature and coupled with spasticity?

    *uses whole arm to bend elbow
  74. What is wernicke's aphasia?
    person usual able to verbalize, but is not frequently functional
Card Set
nervous system
lecture 1