APEuro enlightenment

  1. bourgeoisie
    urban middle class
  2. philosophes
    french for philosopher, great enlightenment thinkers
  3. salon
    room in a fashionable home where the ideas of the enlightenment were discussed and debated
  4. physiocrat
    philosophers who wanted economic reform, favored free trade
  5. infamous
    famous for a bad reason
  6. exile
    cast out
  7. bastille
    infamous prison in paris
  8. enlightened despotism
    voltaires notion of the ideal government; absolute monarch has total power but uses it wisely
  9. despotism
  10. censorship
    limit what people can see or read; edit
  11. natural state
    to live close to nature, no society
  12. general will
    synonym for democracy
  13. supply and demand
    key economic idea of adam smith, CAPITALISM
  14. capitalism
    economic theory developed by adam smith; supply and demand, limited government involvement
  15. laissez-faire
    • french for "hands off"
    • idea that government should keep out of business
  16. opulent
    fancy, ornate
  17. rococo
    art movement, baroque on steroids
  18. deism
    • belief that there is a god who creates but does not redeem
    • "god as a watchmaker"
  19. prime minister
    leads the king's government; leader of the dominant political party in the house of commons
  20. serfdom
    a nation with lots of serfs
  21. magyar
    synonym for hungarians
  22. cassack
    a fierce russian warrior tribe famed for their loyalty to the tsar
  23. agricultural revolution
    • 1) more farmland
    • 2) increased yields per acre
    • 3) healthier and abundant lifestock
    • 4) improved climate
    • mostly british
    • -potato and maize
  24. enlightenment
    • the years of the mid 1700s prior to the french revolution
    • -new spirit of intellectual energy and interest in society and governement
    • -centered in paris
    • -philosophes
  25. hugo grotuis
    • the laws of war and peace
    • issues of international law
    • -3 mile limit
  26. adam smith
    • economist and phisiocrat
    • the wealth of nations
    • -most important economics text ever written
    • -supply and demand-natural laws apply to economics
    • -laissez-faire
    • capitalism
  27. baron montesquieu
    • advocate for limits on political powers
    • opposed absolute monarchy
    • favored separation of powers into branches
    • (king and parliament)
    • the spirit of the laws
  28. john wesley
    • founded methodism
    • he favored a tolerant and inclusive vision of christianity
  29. rousseau
    • social contract
    • emile
    • "natural state"
    • "man is born free, yet everywhere he is in chains"
    • advocated democracy
    • general will
  30. louis XV
    • incompetent absolute monarch of france
    • -war of austrian succession
    • -seven years war
    • "apres moi le deluge"
  31. war of austrian succession
    when maria theresa succeeded to the throne, prussia came in to take selisia (frederick II)
  32. treaty of aux-la-chappel
    ended war of austrian succession and gave silesia to prussia
  33. social contract theory
    the people gave service to a government who in turn protected and flourished, if not then the people could elect a new king
  34. pragmatic sanction
    • charles VI's heir to the throne, maria theresa
    • -austrian nobility and foreign powers would accept her claim to the throne
    • -signed to say she could be empress of austria
  35. partitions of poland
    • 1772 - austria, prussia, russia
    • 1793 - prussia, russia
    • 1795 - austria, prussia, russia
    • poland disappeared from the map until 1918
  36. frederick the great
    • kaiser of prussia
    • -participated in war of austrian succession
    • -was an enlightened despot
    • -had his palace at sans souci
  37. catherine the great
    • russian tsarina
    • -enlightened despot
    • -fought and won wars against the ottomans
    • -participated in partitions of poland
    • -however did not end serfdom
    • -crushed cossack pugachev revolt
  38. romanticism
    • education should foster natural instincts
    • -movement that had its emphasis on heart and sentiment
  39. edward gibbon
    • history of the decline and fall of the roman empire
    • "father" of modern history
    • -new level of expectation for research support for historical writings
    • first modern researched history text
  40. voltaire
    • had a devotion to free speech, free thought, and religious tolerance
    • enlightened despotism
    • candide
    • letters on the english
    • -freedom and tolerance in england
  41. swift
    • gullivers travels
    • -captured the energy of the enlightenment
    • -satyr that mocked different groups of the rich and powerful british society
  42. diderot
    • supporter of the free exchange of ideas
    • encyclopedia
    • -28 volumes of philosophical essays and illustration of the key inventions and ideas of the age
  43. american revolution
    • separate wars in india and north america
    • british won in both
    • india - over madras
    • -treaty of paris = french withdrew
  44. treaty of paris
    ended american revolution wars between british and french
  45. seven years war
    • austria and russia attacked prussia
    • -russia pulled out suddenly = prussia kept silesia
    • french and indian war
    • -over control of colonial possessions in north america and india
    • peace of paris
    • -france was forced out, ending the war
  46. robert walpole
    • first prime minister of britain
    • during george I reign (hannover)
    • -prevented foreign conflicts and kept balance of power
  47. joseph II of austria
    • son of maria theresa
    • -enlightened despot
    • -toleration patent of 1781
    • -abolished serfdom
    • -equality before the law
    • -no death penalty
  48. mary wallstonecraft shelly
    • founder of modern feminism
    • vindication of the rights of women
    • -based on enlightenment principles, women should have the same rights as men
  49. cottage industry
    entrepreneurs bought raw materials and sent them into the countryside where families finished them
  50. silesia
    • an austrian province that was taken by frederick the great of prussia and kept in the end
    • of the war of austrian succession
  51. madame geoffrin
    madame pompadour
    fashionable women of the aristocracy who held salons
  52. 3 enlightened despots
    • catherine the great of russia
    • frederick the great of prussia
    • joseph the II of austria
  53. what would an enlightened despot do
    • -write a constitution
    • -support religious freedom
    • -oppose censorship
    • -encourage progress
  54. voltaire's natural state
    man lived a much simpler and just life in the natural state and civilization corrupted and enslaved man
  55. what was diderot known for?
    human knowledge
  56. what was hume known for?
  57. what was gibbon known for?
  58. what was smith known for?
  59. what was grotius known for?
    international law
  60. what was rousseau known for?
    • natural state
    • social contract
    • general will
  61. what was montesquieu known for?
    limits on political powers
  62. what was voltaire known for?
    enlightened despotism
  63. art
    • the blue boy - gainsborough
    • mr and mrs. andrews - gainsborough
    • reverend robert walker skating - raeburn
  64. 1700 great powers
    • france
    • britain
    • austria
    • russia
    • prussia
  65. act of union
    great britain was created by uniting england and scotland
  66. who was the first hannover to rule britain
    george I, robert walpole
  67. diplomatic revolution of 1756
    maria theresa persuaded france to forget 200 years of hostility on the premise that prussia was a bigger threat
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APEuro enlightenment