APEuro age of absolutism

  1. absolutism
    a government which wields a great deal of control over its society
  2. divine right monarchy
    god chooses kings, total power in the hands of a chosen king
  3. estates-general
    historical parliament of france
  4. "letat c'est moi"
    • "I am the state"
    • motto of louis XIV
  5. ape
  6. mercantilism
    the economic theory that dominated 18th century thought
  7. tariff
    tax on an import
  8. league of augsburg
    • an alliance of anti-french nations organized by william of orange
    • late 1600s
  9. claimants
    one who makes a claim to something
  10. constitutional monarchy
    a king whose power is limited by law
  11. polyglots
    multiple languages
  12. kaiser
    prussian/german emperor
  13. junker
    prussian/german nobility
  14. bureaucracy
    the machinery of government; usually inefficient and slow moving
  15. asiento
    england's right to sell african slaves in spain's new colonies
  16. zenith/nadir
    highest/lowest point
  17. mongol yoke
    a term for the period in russian history where the russians were enslaved by the mongols
  18. tsar
    russian emperor
  19. boyar
    russian nobility
  20. autocracy
    russian absolute divine right of the tsar to rule russia
  21. kremlin
    fortress/palace complex in the heart of moscow; traditional sear of russian power
  22. bicameral
    2 house legislative body
  23. social contract
    theory of government that there is an unwritten agreement between a people and their government; 1700 popular
  24. leviathon
    a great beast of the sea
  25. regicide
    the killing of a king
  26. quartering
    when a government forces citizens to house soldiers at their own expense
  27. arbitrary
  28. martial law
    military law
  29. popular sovereignty
    all power comes from the people
  30. cavalier/roundheads
    supporters of charles during the english civil war/supporters of parliament
  31. republic
    a government without a crowned head of state
  32. jean bodin
    • the republic
    • -god selects kings = divine right
    • -blueprint of absolutism
  33. cardinal richelieu
    • louis XIII
    • built up the system of absolutism in france
    • 1st goal to make the king supreme in france
    • -broke the nobility
    • -intendants
    • -broke the huguenots
    • 2nd goal to make france supreme in all of europe
    • -breaking the hapsburgs
    • (30 years war)
  34. fronde
    uprising of frustrated nobles against the growing power of the monarchy
  35. mazarin
    guided louis XIV
  36. louis XIV
    • (bourbon)
    • "sun king"
    • personification of the absolute monarch
    • established greatest royal court in history at versailles
    • aided by mazarin and colbert
  37. colbert
    • financial advisor of louis XIV
    • -government should dominate economic planning
    • -goal should be a self sufficient economy
    • -advocated high tariffs
    • -acquire colonies
    • -acquire as much bullion as possible and restrict free trade
  38. 30 years war
    • devastated hapsburgs and HRE
    • treaty of westphalia
    • -began as a civil war in the HRE but soon involved denmark, sweden and france
    • (calvinists were not included in the terms of the peace of augsburgs)
  39. william of orange
    • enemy of louis XIV
    • -league of augsburg
    • countered france's dominance
    • "balance of power"
  40. war of spanish succession
    • france and spain against league of augsburg (britain(william III))
    • rooted in the longstanding fears of the dominance of france and the bourbons in europe
    • -marked the end of french expansion
    • -english were becoming powerful
    • treaty of utrecht
    • -bourbons kept spanish and french thrones
    • -england got asiento and gibralto
  41. edict of fontainbleau
    • revocation of edict of nantes
    • all huguenots had to convert or leave france
    • louis XIV
    • "un roi un foi un loi"
  42. peter the great
    • russia
    • centralized government authority
    • forced western manners
    • warm water port
  43. great northern war
    • russia vs sweden
    • -goal to secure a "window to the west" for russia
    • treaty of nystadt
  44. magna carta
    • king john forced to sign when defeated by nobility
    • -limited his power
  45. english limited government bicameral legislature
    • house of commons
    • house of lords
    • "consent of the government"
    • -power to tax
    • -power to pass laws
  46. thomas hobbes
    • first asserted that there is a social conract
    • -the leviathon
  47. english civil war
    • regicide of charles I
    • shaped hobbes thoughts
  48. locke
    • -of civil government: two treatises
    • -agrees with hobbes that there is a social contract
    • "right to revolt"
    • "life liberty and property"
  49. james I
    • son of mary queen of scots
    • -true law of free monarchs
    • intelligent but bad with parliament
  50. charles I
    • son of James I
    • biggest failure in english history
    • signed the petition of right for money and then went back on his word
    • (no taxation without representation, no quartering, no arbitrary arrest, no marital law)
  51. eleven years of tyranny
    • 1629-1640
    • when charles ruled as a virtual absolute monarch after recanting the petition
    • ended when he called in parliament to vote in taxes for war w/scots = long parliament
  52. long parliament
    • led into english civil war
    • fight about who should possess greater power, king or parliament
    • -cavaliers and roundheads
  53. oliver cromwell
    • led roundheads
    • built new model army
    • won the english civil war
  54. english commonwealth
    • only republic in english history
    • oliver cromwell as "lord protector"
    • long parliament became the "rump"
    • -first constitution
    • death of cromwell = restoration of the monarchy
  55. charles II
    • test act
    • tried to ease anti-catholic laws= backfire= clarendon code
  56. test act (1672)
    barred all non- anglicans from holding any government or military leadership position
  57. treaty of dover
    • charles II promised to convert to catholicism
    • Louis XIV promimsed money and military support
  58. popish plot
    • a group of anti james (charles II brother and heir) people concocted a plot to discredit james
    • -claimed he was in a plot to kill the king and take the throne
  59. whigs/tories
    • popish plot brought out division:
    • whigs were opposed to james' succession to the throne
    • tories supported him
  60. james II
    • unpopular
    • remarried a young french princess and had a son = permanent catholic succession
  61. glorious revolution
    leaders of parliament asked invited william and mary to overthrow james
  62. william and mary
    • joint sovereigns
    • constitutional monarchs
    • bill of rights
    • tolerance act
  63. bill of rights
    respected the rights of englishmen
  64. tolerance act
    gave freedom to all protestants
  65. act of settlement
    declared no catholic could ever sit on the english throne and that if queen anne should die childless the throne would pass to the hannover dynasty
  66. Henry IV
    • concentrated more and more power centralized
    • efficient government
    • ended religious violence
    • stabilized economy
    • edict of nantes
  67. duke of sully
    • huguenot
    • brought into the government by Henry IV
  68. william and mary
    • joint soverigns
    • overthrew james II
    • constitutional monarchs
    • tolerance act -freedom for protestants
  69. treaty of utrecht
    ended the war of spanish succession
  70. treaty of westphalia
    ended the thirty years war
  71. true law of free monarchs
    author james II
  72. the leviathon
    author hobbes
  73. new model army
    • army built by oliver cromwell
    • served the english commonwealth
  74. the rump
    • what was left of the long parliament
    • supported oliver cromwell and the english commonwealth
  75. gunpowder plot
    • guy fawkes and robert catesby
    • failed assassination attempt on James I
    • by blowing up the house of lords
    • conflict over religious intolerance
  76. romanov
    • royal family of russia
    • -peter the great
  77. time of troubles
    • period between the death of the last russian tsar feodor ivanavh
    • of the rurik dynasty and the establishment of the romanov dynasty in 1613
  78. treaty of nystadt
    ended the great northern war
  79. brandenburg-prussia
    • old state of the HRE
    • grew into a power at the end of 30 years war
    • rival of austria for dominance in german europe
  80. hohenzolleran
    • controlled prussia with a kaiser and no parliament
    • worked with the junkers
    • highly militaristic style
  81. james II
    • king of england
    • devout catholic
    • declaration of indulgence
    • -suspended laws banning catholics
    • overthrown by william and mary
  82. charles II
    • "merry monarch"
    • tried to sympathize with the catholics
    • -clarendon code
    • -test act
  83. queen anne
    • successor of william and mary
    • protestant
    • all 8 children died
  84. emile
    author rousseau
  85. candide
    author voltaire
  86. letters on the english
    author voltaire
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APEuro age of absolutism