1. anatomy
    study of structure of an organism
  2. dissection
    cutting of parts of the organism
  3. physiology
    study of the function of the living organism and its parts, as well as the chemical processes involved
  4. applied anatomy (also known as clinical anatomy)
    entails the application of anatomical study for the diagnosis and treatment of disease, particularly as it relates to surgical procedures
  5. descriptive anatomy (also known as systematic anatomy)
    involves descriptions of individual body parts without reference to disease conditions. Views the body as a composite of systems that function together
  6. gross anatomy
    studies structures visible without the aid of microscopy
  7. microscopic anatomy
    examines structures not visible to the unaided eye
  8. surface anatomy
    study of the form and structure of the surface of the body, especially with reference to the organs beneath the surface
  9. developmental anatomy
    development of the organism from conception to adulthood
  10. pathological anatomy
    study of pathological entity
  11. comparative anatomy
    study of homologous structures of different animals
  12. electrophysiological techniques
    measure the electrical activity of single cells or groups of cells, including muscle and nervous system tissues. Audiologists will be interested in auditory electrophysiological procedures that measure electrical activity of the brain caused by auditory stimuli (evoked auditory potentials)
  13. respiratory physiology
    concerned with all processes involved in breathing
  14. cytology
    examines structure and function of cells
  15. histology
    the microscopic study of cells and tissues
  16. osteology
    study of structure and function of bones
  17. myology
    examines muscle form and function
  18. anthrology
    studies the joints that unite the bones
  19. angiology
    study of blood vessels and the lymphatic system
  20. neurology
    study of the nervous system
  21. thorax
    the part of the body between the diaphragm and the seventh cervical vertebra
  22. abdomen
  23. Trunk or torso
    made up of the thorax and abdoman. dorsal trunk is the region we refer to as the back. appended to the trunk is the upper and lower extremities.
  24. pelvis
    The area of the hip bones
  25. caput
    resting atop the trunk, also called the head
  26. The two components of the skull
    cranial portion and facial part
  27. cranial portion
    the part of the skull that houses the brain and its components
  28. facial part
    the part of the skull that houses the mouth, pharynx, nasal cavity, and structures related to the upper airway and mastication (chewing)
  29. upper extremity
    the arm (from shoulder to elbow), the forearm, wrist and hand
  30. lower extremity
    thigh, leg, ankle, and foot
  31. Six spaces or cavities where organs reside (only five were listed in the book)
    • Neuroanatomical
    • -Cranial cavity (where the brain resides)
    • -Vertebral canal (where spinal cord is)
    • Within the trunk
    • -thoracic cavity (lungs and related structures)
    • -pericardial cavity (housing the heart)
    • -abdominal cavity (structures of the digestive system)
  32. anatomical position
    the body is erect and the palms, arms and hands face forward
  33. axial skeleton
    head and trunk, with the spinal column being the axis
  34. appendicular skeleton
    includes the lower and upper limbs
  35. neuraxis
    the axis of the brain. This is less straight forward due to morphological changes of the brain during development
  36. frontal section, or frontal view
    divides body into front and back
  37. sagittal section
    any cut that divides the body into left and right portions
  38. cornal section
    front and back portions of the body
  39. anterior
    refers to the front surface of a body. synonymous with ventral for the standing human
  40. posterior
    toward the back.
  41. dorsal
     pertaining to the back of the body or distal
  42. rostral
    toward the head
  43. peripheral
    away from the center
  44. superficial
    confined to the surface
  45. deep
    closer to the axis of the body; further from the surface
  46. distal
    away from the midline
  47. medial
    toward the midline
  48. prone
    body in the horizontal position face down (on the belly)
  49. supine
    body in horizontal position with face up (on the back)
  50. lateral
    related to the side
  51. proximinal
    nearest point of; next to
  52. flexion
    bending at a joint, usually toward the ventral surface (usually results in two ventral surfaces coming closer together)
  53. extension
    the opposite of flexion; the act of pulling two ends farther apart
  54. hyperextension
    extreme extension, such as arching your back at the end of your sit up. Also referred to as dorsiflexion
  55. plantar
    pertaining to the sole of the foot, the flexor surface

    • plantar flexion (rising on your toes)
    • plantar grasp (stimulation of the sole of the foot causes the toes of the feet to "grasp")
    • dorsiflexion (elevation of the dorsum (upper surface) of the foot
    • inversion (turning the sole of your foot inward)
    • eversion (a foot turned out)
  56. palmar
    refers to the palm of the hand, the ventral (flexor) surface. The opposite side is called the dorsal side.

    If the hand is rotated so that the palmar surface is directed inferiorly, it is pronated. Supination refers to rotating the hand so that the palmar surface is directed superiorly.
  57. palmar grasp reflex
    from light stimulation of the palm of the hand. The response is to flex the fingers to grasp
  58. ipsi
  59. If a singular word ends in "a" the plural will most likely be...
  60. if a word ends in "us" the plural will be...
  61. When a singular form ends in "um" the plural will have...
  62. tissue
    Latin, to weave
  63. Four basic-tissues that make up the human body
    • Epithelial
    • Connective
    • Muscular
    • Nervous Tissue
  64. epithelial tissue
    the outer layer of mucous membranes and the cells constituting the skin. has a shortage of intercellular material, letting the cells form a tightly packed sheet, a protective quality
  65. Layers of epithelium
    • surface covering of the human body
    • all cavities of the body
    • tubes that connect cavities of the body
  66. Forms of epithelium
    • secretory
    • cilia
  67. cilia
    • -hairlike protrusions that actively beat to remove contaminants from the epithelial surface (beating ciliated epithelia)
    • -found in cavities of the respiratory passageway, within ventricles in the brain, lining of the central canal, etc.
    • -unique in that they are motile (their function involves movement)
    • -they move rapidly in one direction (returning to original posistion), and more slowly in the opposite direction (move materials from location to location)
  68. baseplate, or basement membrane
    • underlies epithelial tissue and made predominantly of collagen
    • function varies depending upon location (can act as filter or stabilize epithelial tissue
    • important in the process of directing growth patterns for epithelial cells
  69. The role of epithelial tissue
    to provide a barrier to some material (ex: can protect the skin from dehydration and leakage of fluid)
  70. connective tissue
    • composed of predominantly of intercellular material, known as the matrix, within which the cells of connective tissues are bound
    • may be solid, liquid or gel-like
  71. areolar tissue (or loose connective tissue)
    • elastic material found between muscles and as a thin, membranous sheet between organs
    • it fills the interstitial space between organs and its fibers form a mat or weave of flexible collagen
    • adipose tissue- areolar tissue that is highly impregnated with fat cells
  72. lymphoid tissue
    specialized connective tissue found in tonsils and adenoids
  73. fibrous tissue
    • binds structures together and may contain combinations of fiber types
    • -white fibrous: strong, dense, and highly organized. Found in ligaments that bind bones together, as well as in the fascia that encases muscle
    • -yellow elastic: found where connective tissue must return to its original shape after being distended, such as in the cartilage of the trachea or bronchial passageway
    • -collagenous and reticular fibers: provide a flexible structure to fibrous connective tissue where elastic fibers provide recoil to this tissue where needed
  74. cartilage
    • unique properties of strength and elasticity
    • tensile strength keeps the fibers from being easily separated when pulled
    • compressive strength lets it retain its form by being resistant to crushing
    • hyaline cartilage is smooth and has a glassy, blue cast for articulating surfaces of bones and in the cartilaginous portion of the rib cage
    • fibrocartilage contains collagenous fibers, providing the same cushion between the vertebrae of the spinal column, and mating surface for temporomandibular joint between the lower jaw and skull. acts as a shock absorber
    • yellow elastic cartilage has less collagen, endowed rather with elastic fibers. found in the pinna, nose and epiglottis
  75. blood
    • the fluid component of blood is plasma, and blood cells (red and white) are suspended in this matrix
    • blood cells arise from within the marrow of another type of connective tissue, bone
  76. bone
    • the hardest of connective tissues, and the hardness is a direct function of the inorganic salts that make up a large portion of bone
    • generally classified as being compact or spongy
    • compact: lamellar or sheetlike structure
    • spongy: looks porous. contains the marrow that produces red and white blood cells as well as the blood plasma matrix
  77. fibrobasts
    • responsible for the production of the extracelular matrix, so they are able to synthesize and secrete protein
    • another function is wound repair; infiltrating a wound site and laying down a matrix
  78. macrophages
    • another "healing" connective tissue
    • responsible for the collection of waste, bacteria or necrotic (dead) tissue, engulfing them and digesting them by secreting soluble proteins, which is critical in the regeneration of tissue
  79. lymphocytes (another important protective cell type)
    • B-lymphocytes arise from bone marrow and are stimulated to proliferate within lymph tissue by the presence of foreign matter. Generate and secrete antibodies to defend against viral attack
    • T-lymphocytes arise from bone marrow but end up in the thymus. their proliferation is stimulated by viruses, and their job is to seek and destroy viral agents
  80. mast cells (another important protective cell type)
    • found in loose connective tissues and some organs
    • provide the first response to irritation or inflammation
  81. muscle tissue
    • specialized contractile tissue
    • striated: (striped appearance under microscope) or also called skeletal muscle; known as voluntary or somatic muscle because it can move in response to conscious processes
    • smooth muscle: muscular tissue of the digestive tract and blood vessels; sheetlike with spindle-shaped cells
    • cardiac muscle: composed of cells that interconnect in a net-like fashion
    • smooth and cardiac are generally outside of voluntary control, related to the autonomic or involuntary nervous system.
  82. Nervous tissue
    • highly specialized communicative tissue.
    • consists of neurons or nerve cells that take on a variety of forms
    • funtion is to transmit information from on neuron to another, from neurons to muscles, or from sensory receptors to other neural structures
  83. organs
    tissue aggregates with functional unity
  84. Tissue Aggregates
    • fascia
    • ligaments
    • tendons
    • bones
    • joints
    • muscles
  85. Fascia
    surrounds organs, being a sheetlike membrane that can be dense or filmy, thin or thick. Striated muscle is surrounded by perimysium, fascia sufficiently thick (muscle can't be clearly seen through it)
  86. ligaments
    • "binding"
    • visceral: bind organs together or hold structures in place
    • skeletal: must withstand great pressure, typically bind bone to bone. the connective tissue fibers course in the same direction, giving ligaments great tensile strength
    • most ligaments have little stretch (with a white cast, those that stretch appear yellow)
  87. tendons
    • provide a means of attaching muscle to bone or cartilage (it's actually part of the muscle so it always binds muscle to another structure)
    • the fibers of tendons are arranged longitudinally (opposed to interwoven), giving them great tensile strength but less compressive strength
    • tendons tend to have the morphology (form) of the muscles they serve
    • aponeurosis: what a tendon is called when it is sheetlike. resembles fascia, but are more dense. will retain the longitudinal orientation of the connective tissue fibers, whereas fascia are made up of matted fibers
    • a tendon can withstand pulling of more than 8,000 times the stretching force that a muscle the same diameter can, or twice the pulling force of the muscle itself (a sudden pull will damage the muscle itself well before the tendon itself)
  88. bones and their relation to cartilage
    • developing bone has a portion that is cartilage and all bone begins as a cartilage mass
    • many points of articulation, or joining, between bones are comprised of cartilage. (cartilage will replace bone where elasticity is beneficial)
    • as cartilage becomes filled with inorganic salts, it begins to harden, ultimately becoming bone
  89. bones
    • provide rigid skeletal support and protect organs and soft tissues
    • 30% of bone is collagen, providing a great tensile strength
    • Calcium deposits contribute to rigidity and compressive strength of bone tissue
    • characterized by length (long or short) or shape (flat) or as having irregular morphology
    • periosteum: (fibrous membrane covering of a bone) extends long its entire surface (with excepts of regions that have cartilage) and is most tightly bound to the bone at the tendinous junctures. it is tough and fibrous, whereas the inner layer of periosteum contain cells that facilitate bone repair, fibrobasts
    • blood cell production occurs within the cavities of the spongy bone trabeculae (supporting beams) that are well protected by compact bone
    • the density of a bone and its conformation are directly related to the amount of force placed on the bone. (use of muscle causes bone to strengthen and become more dense in regions stressed by that activity)
  90. Joints, forms and the types of joints
    • defined: the union of bones with other bones or cartilage with other cartilage
    • forms and types:
    • diarthodial= high mobility. synovial joints
    • amphiarthrodial= limited mobility. cartilaginous joints
    • synarthrodial= no mobility. fibrous joints
  91. fibrous joints
    • Two major types
    • syndesmoses: bound by fibrous ligaments but have little movement
    • sultures: between bones of the skull that are not intended to move at all. several forms include; a serrate or denate (gains its strength from the jagged edge that mates the two bones together); a squamous where the two mating bones actually overlap in a "keying" formation; gomphosis which is a hole-and-peg arrangement (tooth) (socket); the plane joint is the direct union of two edges of bone
  92. cartilaginous joints
    • cartilage provides the union between two bones
    • synchondrosis: the cartilaginous union is maintained, although it ossifies as the individual ages
    • symphysis: found between the pubic bones or between the disks of the vertebral column
  93. synovial joints
    • include some form of joint cavity within which synovial fluid (lubricating substance) is found, and around which is an articular capsule (fibrous connective tissue covering). they are either simple or composite
    • plane synovial joints: gliding joints; arthrodial. the mating surfaces of the bone are more or less flat
    • spheroid (or cotyloid) joints are reciprocal in nature (as are all plane joints), in that one member of the union has a convex portion that mates with a concave portion of the other member. ball-and-socket joint. permits a wide range of motion

    • condylar joints: more shallow versions of the ball-and-socket joint and permit more limited movement
    • ellipsoid joints: are on a elliptical (football-shaped) member. Permit wide range of movement but not rotation
    • trochoid joint (pivot joint): designed for rotation. bony process protruding into a space
    • saddle joint (sellar joint): one member is convex, the other concave sitting on the saddle.
    • hinge joint (ginglymus): acts like the hinge of the cabinet door: one rotates on a joint with limited range, permitting only flexion and extension
  94. muscles
    • bound groups of muscle fibers with functional unity
    • epimysium surrounds muscles, and muscles have a tendon attaching it to skeletal structure
    • have a nerve supply to provide stimulation of the contracting bundle of tissue and a vascular supply to meet their nutrient needs
    • can contract to half its length, long muscles can contract more than short muscles
    • diameter of a muscle is directly related to its strength
    • muscles exert force by shortening the distance between two points and can contract only in a straight line (with exception of sphincteric muscles)
    • point of attachment of the least mobile element is the originpoint of attachment that moves as a result of muscle contraction is the insertion
    • agonist: muscle contracted for purpose of a specific motor act (as contrasted to the antagonist)
    • antagonist: a muscle that opposes the contraction of another muscle (the agonist)
    • synergists: muscles that stablilize structures
  95. More muscles
    • a muscle attached to a closer joint will move the bone farther and faster than the one attached farther from the joint. Thus the more distally placed muscle will have an advantage for lifting, while the muscle closer to the joint will provide greater range to the bone to which it is attached
    • muscles are innervated or supplied by a single nerve which can be excitatory (efferent) or sensory (afferent)
    • a motor unit consists of one efferent nerve fiber and the muscle fibers to which it attaches. every muscle fiber will be innervated. muscles have sensory components that provide info to the CNS concerning the state of the muscle
  96. Body systems
    a functionally defined group of organs
  97. Types of body systems
    • muscular- smooth striated and cardiac
    • skeletal- bones and cartilage
    • respiratory- passageways and tissues in gas exchange
    • digestive- oral cavity and pharynx, esophagus, liver, intestines, etc
    • reproductive- reproduction organs
    • urinary- kidney, urethra, ureters and bladder
    • endocrine- -production and dissemination of hormones
    • nervous system- nerve tissue and structures of the CNS and PNS
  98. systems of speech
    • respiratory system-resp. pathway, lungs, trachea, etc
    • phonatory system- production of sound and components of resp. system. includes laryngeal structures through which phonation is achieved
    • articulatory system- structures used in shaping the oral cavity to alter the characteristics of the sounds of speech.
    • resonatory system- nasal cavity and soft palate and portions of the anatomically defined resp. and digestive systems. the portion through the vocal tract through which the acoutic product of vocal fold vibration resonates (usually the oral, pharyngeal, and nasal cavities combined, somtimes only referring to the nasal cavities and nasopharynx)
Card Set
Speech Science Chapter One Terminology