chapter 1 lab book

  1. three ways specimens are analyzed
    1. measuring levels of analytes and comparing to reference values

    2. observing and detecting abnormal cells under the microscope 

    3. detecting the presence of pathogenic microorganisms
  2. types of laboratories
    -- reference or referral laboratories: clinical lab run by pathologists

    -- hospital laboratories: bedside test ( POCT)

    -- ambulatory care laboratories: CLIA-waived test
  3. types of medical laboratories
    • . specimen collection and processing
    • . hematology department
    • . chemistry department
    • . immunology/ serology and immunohematology
    • . microbiology department
    • . pathology department
    • . toxicology department
  4. purposes for laboratory testing
    1. to screen patients for possible disorders

    2. to establish a diagnosis

    3. to monitor the patient's condition or treatment
  5. common CLIA waived test
    - urinalysis and pregnancy testing

    - hematology test: hemoglobin, hematocrit

    - coagulation

    - chemistry: glucose, lipids
  6. required characteristics of a laboratory professional
    1. professionalism

    2. interpersonal communication skills

    3. observant

    4. problem slover

    5. organized
  7. Preanalytical
    • - test are ordered
    • - requisition filled out
    • -specimen collected and labeled
    • -specimen processed and transported to office laboratory
  8. Analytical
    - in office lab tests performed and patient test results logged and charted

    - results are logged and placed into patient charts

    - results are given to physician
  9. Postanalytical
    - dispose specimens

    - patient  test results are interpreted and signed by physician

    - patient is notified and it is recorded in chart

    - final signed chart is filled
  10. Standard precautions
    are recommendations for infection control of communicable diseases
  11. Personal protective equipment (PPE)
    • - goggles
    • - face shield
    • - gown
    • - gloves
    • - plexiglas shield
  12. wearing gloves still requires
    washing of the hands
  13. Universal precautions
    The assumption that blood or body fluid containing blood from any patient or test kit could be infectious.
  14. Diseases caused by bloodborne pathogens
    • HIV- no vaccine
    • HBV- vaccine available
    • HCV- no vaccine
  15. HIV is tramsmitted by
    blood , semem and amniotic fluid.

    HIV is a RETROVIRUS it attacks the immune system by destroying the white blood cells known as CD4+ T lymphocytes.
  16. 4 stages of HIV
    1. An acute stage flu like symptoms with swallon glands

    2. an asymptomatic stage no symptoms but the person is still infectious

    3. Symptomatic stage appearance of opportunistic infections

    4. AIDs
  17. Hepatits  B virus (HBV)
    - is the most prevalent bloodborne virus.

    - should be avaliable to all employees. new employees should begin vaccination within the first 2 weeks of employment. 10 days to decline have to sign a declination letter.
  18. HAV- Hepatisis A
    • - not bloodborne
    • - attacks the liver
    • - trasmitted by direct or indirect contact through gastrointestional tract
    • - patients are placed on isolation
  19. HCV - Hepatitis C
    attacks the liver
  20. OSHA biohazard training: OSHA requires employess to keep workers informed and protected by supplying
    • 1. safety training
    • 2. proper apparel (PPE)
    • 3. a safe work environment
  21. the average health care worker is more likely to contract
    hepatisits B or hepatisits C than HIV
  22. Engineering controls
    efforts to isolate and remove pathogenic dangers from the workplace.
  23. work practice controls
    • actions in a laboratory to protect workers from exposure to pathogens in blood or body fluids no
    • no eating
    • no drinking
    • no smoking
    • no applying of make-up
  24. procedure after exposure to blood
    • - wash the exposed area immediately
    • - report the exposed area immediately to a supervisor
    • - file an incident report
    • - seek medical attention
  25. color code blue
    health hazard
  26. color code yellow
    reactivity ( instability)
  27. color code red
    flammability (fire hazard)
  28. color code white
    other such as PPE
  29. reservoir host
    an infected person who is carrying an infectious agent
  30. portal of exit
    a means of leavingthe infected host's body. through mouth , broken skin , rectum or body fluids
  31. transmission
    a means of transporting itself from the infected individual to another person by direct or indirect contact.
  32. portal of entry
    a body opening or break in the skin in another person
  33. susceptible host
    an individual who is unable to protect himself against the infectious agent
Card Set
chapter 1 lab book
chapter 1 lab book