APEuro reformation

  1. temporal
    a political or secular matter
  2. clergy
    one who works for a religion as an occupation
  3. layman
    a member of the church but not clergy
  4. tithe
    a percentage of your income given to support the church, usually 10%
  5. dogma
    the teachings of a religion
  6. nepotism
    to show favoritism or unfair preference for family or friends
  7. simony
    to buy or sell a religious office
  8. pluralism
    holding more tan one religious title
  9. indulgences
    things that you can do to lessen the weight of your sins, by the 1400s you could buy them
  10. vulgate bible
    latin medieval bible used in the catholic church
  11. formalism
    belief that the church had become too concerned with how something was done instead of why
  12. utopia
    greek word for nowhere, a perfect, ideal place
  13. status quo
    things the way they are
  14. faith alone
    luther's idea that faith not works lead to salvation
  15. faith and works
    catholic idea that both are needed for salvation
  16. hohenzolleran
    royal family of prussia, later germany
  17. fugger
    great banking family of northern europe; like medici
  18. diet
    a court
  19. recant
    to take back
  20. condmen
    to sentence to death
  21. priesthood of all believers
    luther's belief that all christians are equally blessed by the holy spirit, no special priestly powers
  22. scandanavia
    northernmost region of europe: denmark, iceland, norway, sweden, sometimes finland
  23. atrocities
    senseless, cruel, violent act
  24. chaplain
    a clergyman who serves in the military ministering to soldiers
  25. transubstantiation
    in a catholic mass the bread and wine are transformed into the actual body and blood of christ
  26. consubstantiation
    protestant idea of communion that the bread and wine are only symbolic of the body and blood of christ
  27. sect
    a smaller group within a larger one, usually a small group persecuted by the larger one
  28. predestination
    calvanist dogma that god predetermines salvation and damnation, and nothing you can do will change it
  29. icon
    a religious image
  30. iconoclastic
    one who smashes religious idols
  31. archbishop of canterbury
    the senior religious leader of the anglican church
  32. act of supremacy
    1533 law that named the king head of the church in england
  33. act of uniformity
    a law that required every church in england to use the book of common prayer
  34. consort
    married to a reigning king or queen
  35. soverign
    a reigning king or queen
  36. act of religious settlement
    promises religious toleration in england to all who would choose nation first and religion second
  37. politique
    a term for one who puts nation first above religion
  38. huguenots
    french protestants, calvanists
  39. kirk
    scotish protestant political movement led by john knox
  40. anabaptists
    all radical non traditional protestants in europe
  41. annulment
    to end a marriage by declaring it invalid
  42. illegitimate
    not legal
  43. abdicate
    a ruler either voluntarily or involuntarily gives up a throne
  44. 39 articles
    a new confession of faith defined by theological issues; midway between lutheranism and calvanism during the reign of queen elizabeth
  45. battle of lepanto
    • 1571
    • spain's holy league vs. turkish
    • encroachments in the mediterranean resulted in victory over the turkish fleet
  46. pope paul III
    appointed the reform committee of the catholic church
  47. king francis I
    • valois
    • father of henry III
    • rival of charles V
    • hapsburg-valois wars
  48. church of england
    • anglican
    • -Henry
    • seized church lands and sold to aristocrats
    • priests were forced to swear loyalty to the king or die
    • nobility forced to sign the act of supremacy
  49. john calvin
    • calvanism
    • forced to flee to geneva
    • institutes of the christian religion
  50. institutes of the christian religion
    • calvan's most important work, outlined the basic structure for protestant church, WRITTEN IN FRENCH
    • predestination
    • "doctrine of the elect"
    • faith alone
    • consubstantiation
    • iconoclastics
  51. queen catherine de' medici
    • st. bartholomews day massacre
    • marired henry II (valois)
    • pulled the strings behind Francis II, charles IX and Henry III (her sons)
  52. mary queen of scots
    beheaded by elizabeth after being involved in a plot to kill her
  53. william the silent
    leader of the dutch protestants against the spanish duke of alba, sent by the king
  54. act of supremacy
    • Henry VIII
    • 1533
    • named the king head of the church of england
  55. thomas cromwell
    helped henry VIII with dissolution of monasteries and organizing the government's new role in the church
  56. suleiman the magnificent
    • leader of the ottoman turks
    • defeated king louis of hungary
    • (charles V brother in law)
  57. edict of nantes
    • henry IV of navarre
    • granted huguenots full religious toleration
    • -200 fortified cities
  58. council of blood
    a form of the inquisition used by philip II in the revolt in the netherlands
  59. act of religious settlement
    • passed by elizabeth I
    • promised religious toleration as long as you were loyal to the crown
    • kept a general peace
  60. act of uniformity
    • 1549
    • introduced the book of common prayer
    • made all services in england the same
  61. queen elizabeth I
    • -final victory of protestantism in england
    • -act of religious settlement 15559
    • -enemy of philip after declaring to be protestant- aided the dutch in revolt against spain
    • -executed by mary stuart
    • -supported pirate campaigns
    • -spanish armada
  62. revolt of the netherlands
    • spanish netherlands began converting to calvanism and were attacked by the duke of alba
    • council of blood
    • dutch resisted alba, led by william the silent
    • religious liberty and independence
  63. king henry IV of navarre
    • married margot (valois) on st. bartholomews day
    • had to convert to catholocism
    • granted edict of nantes- full religious toleration and restored religious peace
  64. henri guise
    lead the massacre in st bartholomews day
  65. king philip II
    • spain
    • devout catholic
    • believed his destiny was to restore catholicism all over the continent
    • financially supported by the new world
    • lost holland
  66. french wars of religion
    • violence between catholics and huguenots
    • catholic league
    • st. bartholomews day massacre
    • edict of nantes created temporary peace
  67. society of jesus
    • jesuits
    • founded by ignatious of loyola
    • forceful order of the church
    • specialized in education and set up schools all over the world
  68. council of trent
    • 1545-1563
    • made profound changes in church life
    • -required priests to be more educated
    • -ended sale of indulgences, pluralism, and simony
    • -standardized mass in latin
    • -reaffirmed all basic catholic beleifs
  69. catholic reformation
    • needed assistance of major catholic monarchs in europe for military response
    • catholic monarchs hated potestants but did not want the church to become more powerful
    • also at war themselves
  70. doctrine of the elect
    those chosen for salvation in calvanism
  71. peace of augsburg
    • HRE ferdinand I allowed each state within the empire to select its own religion; catholic or lutheran
    • -ruler's faith
    • temporarily restored religious peace
  72. ulrich zwingli
    • swiss priest and chaplain
    • student of erasmus but caused a break
    • -consubstantiation
  73. marburg colloquoy
    • zwubgku vs. luther
    • idea of transubstantiation
    • broke into separate sects
  74. diet of worms/edict of worms
    • luther was forced to appear before HRE and officials
    • would not recant and condemned to death- fleed to the protection of german princes
  75. martin luther
    • 95 theses
    • -a challenge to the whole concept of indulgences (1517)
    • "jsut shall live by faith alone"
  76. sir thomas more
    • advisor to henry VIII
    • -executed
    • utopia
    • -describes a blueprint of how to make a perfect world in an imperfect on, recognizes that no such place exists
  77. queen mary I
    • devout catholic
    • attempted to reestablish catholicism
    • pushed to hard = missed opportunity
    • (bloody mary)
  78. king edward VI
    • henry VIII and lady jane seymore
    • his reign marked the beginning of the faith in england
    • act of uniformity
  79. king henry VIII
    • took the popes side in diet of worms
    • "defender of the faith"
    • break with church was political not religious
    • 2nd of the tudor dynasty
    • catherine of aragon, anne boleyn, jane seymore, anne cleves, katherine howard, catherine darr
  80. HRE charles V
    • enemy of francis I of france
    • at war with ottoman turks
    • edict of worms (luther) made no attempt "i do not make war on dead men"
    • attack protestant states = civil war
    • 1555 abdicated
    • -brother ferdinand and son philip II
  81. peasants war
    • rose against nobles in swabia
    • luther did not support (loyalty to princes who protected him)
    • -against the robbing and murdering hordes of peasants
  82. erasmus of rotterdam
    • -handbook of the christian knight
    • -in praise of human folly
    • inspired others who broke from the church
  83. christian humanism
    • attempted to reform the church from the inside
    • favored simplified religious service
    • catholics who wanted reform but not to leave the church altogether
  84. anabaptists
    • common slur of all "radical" protestants
    • referred to the tradition of adult baptism
    • -amish, mennonites, quakers, unitarians
    • millenarianism- belief that the end of the word was at hand
  85. schmalkaldic league
    a league of protestants, created for a defense against the catholics
  86. baroque
    • architecture
    • -kept essence of classical techniques but with detailing and colorful flourishes (palace at versailles)
    • art
    • -highly ornamented style concerned with the use of balance and harmony and passion
    • literature
    • -paradise lost
  87. puritans
    english protestants inspired by calvanist theology who wished to remove all traces of catholicism in the church of england
  88. spanish armada
    • fleet of spanish warships sent to do battle on england (elizabeth)
    • 1588
  89. philip melanchthon
    • praecepter germaniae
    • saxony
    • divided students into 3 classes based on age or capabilities
  90. sir william cecil
    cheif advisor for elizabeth I during her reign
  91. united provinces
    the northern parts of the netherlands that broke from philip in the revolt of the netherlands
  92. ecclesiastical ordinances
    • church constitution of calvin
    • -created church government that used both clergy and layman in the service of the church
  93. leipzig debate
    • luther vs. johann eyck
    • luther was forced to move beyond indulgences to deny the authority of popes and councils
    • -luther identified with john hus, a condemned heretic
Card Set
APEuro reformation