- 1. catholic prelate and bishop of hippo
- 2. - he said rome was punished for politician's sins.
- - drew a line b/w ppl who lived by god and who would go to hell
- a. byzantine emporer
- b. -strongly against pagan ways in christianity.
- -he fought against his people and died.
pope clement v
- a. french pope
- b. he protected catholic kinights templars by moving the papacy to avignon
fourth lateral council
- a. council the reps the church
- b. made decrees. pontiffs had authority over theological and political issues
carlos I/ charles v
- a. king of spain and holy roman emporer
- b. -bought his way to imperial corwn.
- -his army sacked rome.
- -he fought against luther but couldn't suppress his movement.
- a. torturing of accused heretics until they confessed
- b. shows time's inhumanity of humans toward each other. (prey: jew, blacks, minority)
- a. buying/selling everything in Holy See
- b. people could buy positions and get out of punishment
- a. pope
- b. against luther. lost many chances of suppressing his movement. (courting federick of saxony). was excommunicated by luther
- a. dominacan friar; famous in florence.
- b. -he presented florence a democratic government w/out corruption.
- -upset by vatican orgerires and alexander vi's ponography. burned pornography and gambling things. tried to remove alexander
lorenzo de medici
- a. italian statesman; held florentine power
- b. was almost murdered by pope sixtus IV and pazzi family but sought revenge by torturing and killing pazzi gang
- a. leage of 70 towns around bremen, hamburg and lubeck
- b. combatted piracy and foreign trade restrictions
- a. king of france
- b.- saved leonardo da vinci.
- -agreed with luther about purgatory and turned from the pope
- a. italian pope
- b. rebuked cardinal borgia for inviting women to his party without their husbands, fathers, and brothers.
rodrigo lanzol y boriga/ pope alexander vi
- a. 2nd borgia pope; lived from 1492-1503
- b. - bought his position to book and suppressed books against papacy.
- -loved pornography and broke commandments. slept with many women. horny dude.
- a. italian cardinal and pope alexander vi's son
- b. got red hat from his father and was a murderer
- a. introduced movable type
- b. his printing expanded literacy
sir thomas moore
- a. english statesman and king henry viii's high chancellor
- b. -opposed king henry viii and catherine's divore and his marriage to anne.
- -kept silent about the act of succession and didn't go to anne's coronation.
- -jailed and beheaded
giovanni pico della mirandola
- a. italian philosopher and humanist
- b. -he suggested similarity b/w jewish thoughts and the gospel.
- -found 900 theses about christianity coming from hebrew, arabic, greek, latin sources.
- -pope julius II denounced his thesus, ordered an apologia. -arrested imprisoned and poisoned
- a. dutch scholar.
- b. -used satire for his books.
- -defended luther and sent advice to him but later angered him.
- -victimized by revolution and died a matyr of everything he despised.
- a. pope who was the enemy of europe
- b. -cruel and liked christians killing each other.
- -sold holy offices and was paid by his secretaries.
- -asked michelangelo to complete sistine chapel ceiling
- a. dominican friar.
- b. -supported indulgences and convinced people to do it
- -traveled to raise funds
- -denounced martin luther but became hated by university students
- a. augistinia friar, german monk, professor of philosopy at wittenberg
- b. -led protestant reformation
- -against indulgences, corrput churrch
- -posted 95 theses
- -burned library books and copy of papal bull
- a. bonemian matyr and czech patriot
- b. -victim of the council
- -tried stopping corruption but offended clergymen and was excommunicated
- -argued with king wencesias IV about indulgences and was gave him to pope
- -went to stake as heretic
- -luther agreed with him at diet of worms
- a. humanist and french pastor
- b. started calvinism
- a. pope and cousin of leo x. (1523-1534)
- b. tried to get secret treaties with charles v and francis i but was exposed
- -romans were offended by alliances with french and pompeo colonna tried to kill him
- a. king of england and devoted catholic who wanted male heir
- b. -was against lutheranism and english heresy
- -wanted to divorce 1st wife
- -pope clement couldn't agree
- -parliament passed act of succession
- -pope excommunicated him
- -parliament passed bills against church
- -abandoned rome and made new national church with himself as supreme head
- -split from church
act of succession
- a. act passed by parliament in 1534
- b. made catherine's marriage w/ henry invalid and anne new queen. no questioning allowed
act of supremacy
- a. act passed by parliament in 1534
- b. declared split b/w henry and rome and henry founded Ecclesia Anglican
queen mary i
- a. duaghter of king henry viii and catherine
- b. -crowned after lady jane grey
- -tried to wipe out reformation
- -killed many people
- a. daughter of anne and king henry
- b. -restored protestantis and act of supremacy
- -ruled for 45 years
- a. natural disaster in europe
- b. -economic, social, political, cultural upheavel
- -declined population by 25-50%
- a. work by giovanni boccaccio
- -describes plage and what happened
- a. worst organized massacres
- b. carried out in germany and destroyed jewish communities
- a. peasant revolt in northern france
- b. peasants be madddddd
wat typler and john bell
- a. leaders of widespread peasant rebellion
- b. burned houses and killed officials
- a. woolworkers
- b. revolted and got some concessions
- a. weapon invented by welsh
- b. used by english soldiers in hundred year's war
- a. english king (1413-1422)
- b. -renewed war and invaded france
- -reconquered normandy and allianced with duke of burgundy -> treaty of troyes
- -married catherine
battle of agincourt
- a. battle b/w england and france in 1415
- b. french was defeated with 6,000 men dead and english had 300 men dead
- a. money payments
- b. substituted for miliatry service. made monarchs :)
gabelle and taille
- a. salt & hearth tax
- b. -used by phillip VI for revenue after hundred years war
- -heavy on low and middle class
***golden bull of charles iv
- a. document by charles IV that helped principle of election
- b. 4 princes and 3 ecc. leaders elect holy roman emporer
- a. city in rome and capital of univeral church
- b. -decline in papal prestige here
- -symbol of abuses within church
catherine of siena
- a. religious leader from 1347-1380
- b. told pope gregory xi to return to rome
- a. time when europe slit in 2 for clement or urban. lasted 40 years
- b. bad effect on church and christedom.
christine de pizan
- a. vernacular writer from 1364-1430
- b. wrote "book of the city of ladies"
- a. forerunner of italian renaissance painting
- b. drew figures that were solid, rounded, and 3d depth. realistic human qualities
- a. thoery that only church council and end schism and bring reform to church
- b. people had conflicts deciding who would call the council.
***council of constance
- a. made by sigismund from 1414-1418
- b. ended schism and made cardinal oddone colonnto to pope martin v