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  1. ***St. Augustine
    • 1. catholic prelate and bishop of hippo
    • 2. - he said rome was punished for politician's sins. 
    • - drew a line b/w ppl who lived by god and who would go to hell
  2. ***Leo III
    • a. byzantine emporer
    • b. -strongly against pagan ways in christianity.
    • -he fought against his people and died.
  3. pope clement v
    • a. french pope
    • b. he protected catholic kinights templars by moving the papacy to avignon
  4. fourth lateral council
    • a. council the reps the church
    • b. made decrees. pontiffs had authority over theological and political issues
  5. carlos I/ charles v
    • a. king of spain and holy roman emporer
    • b. -bought his way to imperial corwn.
    • -his army sacked rome.
    • -he fought against luther but couldn't suppress his movement.
  6. spanish inquisition
    • a. torturing of accused heretics until they confessed
    • b. shows time's inhumanity of humans toward each other. (prey: jew, blacks, minority)
  7. simony
    • a. buying/selling everything in Holy See
    • b. people could buy positions and get out of punishment
  8. leo x
    • a. pope
    • b. against luther. lost many chances of suppressing his movement. (courting federick of saxony). was excommunicated by luther
  9. ***savonarola
    • a. dominacan friar; famous in florence.
    • b. -he presented florence a democratic government w/out corruption.
    • -upset by vatican orgerires and alexander vi's ponography. burned pornography and gambling things. tried to remove alexander
  10. lorenzo de medici
    • a. italian statesman; held florentine power
    • b. was almost murdered by pope sixtus IV and pazzi family but sought revenge by torturing and killing pazzi gang
  11. hansa
    • a. leage of 70 towns around bremen, hamburg and lubeck
    • b. combatted piracy and foreign trade restrictions
  12. frances i
    • a. king of france
    • b.- saved leonardo da vinci.
    • -agreed with luther about purgatory and turned from the pope
  13. pius II
    • a. italian pope
    • b. rebuked cardinal borgia for inviting women to his party without their husbands, fathers, and brothers.
  14. rodrigo lanzol y boriga/ pope alexander vi
    • a. 2nd borgia pope; lived from 1492-1503
    • b. - bought his position to book and suppressed books against papacy.
    • -loved pornography and broke commandments. slept with many women. horny dude.
  15. cesare borgia
    • a. italian cardinal and pope alexander vi's son
    • b. got red hat from his father and was a murderer
  16. ***johannes gutenberg
    • a. introduced movable type
    • b. his printing expanded literacy
  17. sir thomas moore
    • a. english statesman and king henry viii's high chancellor
    • b. -opposed king henry viii and catherine's divore and his marriage to anne.
    • -kept silent about the act of succession and didn't go to anne's coronation.
    • -jailed and beheaded
  18. giovanni pico della mirandola
    • a. italian philosopher and humanist
    • b. -he suggested similarity b/w jewish thoughts and the gospel.
    • -found 900 theses about christianity coming from hebrew, arabic, greek, latin sources.
    • -pope julius II denounced his thesus, ordered an apologia. -arrested imprisoned and poisoned
  19. erasmus
    • a. dutch scholar.
    • b. -used satire for his books.
    • -defended luther and sent advice to him but later angered him.
    • -victimized by revolution and died a matyr of everything he despised.
  20. julius II
    • a. pope who was the enemy of europe
    • b. -cruel and liked christians killing each other.
    • -sold holy offices and was paid by his secretaries.
    • -asked michelangelo to complete sistine chapel ceiling
  21. ***johann tetzel
    • a. dominican friar.
    • b. -supported indulgences and convinced people to do it
    • -traveled to raise funds
    • -denounced martin luther but became hated by university students
  22. martin luther
    • a. augistinia friar, german monk, professor of philosopy at wittenberg
    • b. -led protestant reformation
    • -against indulgences, corrput churrch
    • -posted 95 theses 
    • -burned library books and copy of papal bull
  23. jan hus
    • a. bonemian matyr and czech patriot
    • b. -victim of the council
    • -tried stopping corruption but offended clergymen and was excommunicated
    • -argued with king wencesias IV about indulgences and was gave him to pope 
    • -went to stake as heretic
    • -luther agreed with him at diet of worms
  24. john calvin
    • a. humanist and french pastor
    • b. started calvinism
  25. clement VII
    • a. pope and cousin of leo x. (1523-1534)
    • b. tried to get secret treaties with charles v and francis i but was exposed
    • -romans were offended by alliances with french and pompeo colonna tried to kill him
  26. henry VIII
    • a. king of england and devoted catholic who wanted male heir
    • b. -was against lutheranism and english heresy
    • -wanted to divorce 1st wife
    • -pope clement couldn't agree
    • -parliament passed act of succession
    • -pope excommunicated him
    • -parliament passed bills against church
    • -abandoned rome and made new national church with himself as supreme head
    • -split from church
  27. act of succession
    • a. act passed by parliament in 1534
    • b. made catherine's marriage w/ henry invalid and anne new queen. no questioning allowed
  28. act of supremacy
    • a. act passed by parliament in 1534
    • b. declared split b/w henry and rome and henry founded Ecclesia Anglican
  29. queen mary i
    • a. duaghter of king henry viii and catherine
    • b. -crowned after lady jane grey
    • -tried to wipe out reformation
    • -killed many people
  30. elizabeth
    • a. daughter of anne and king henry
    • b. -restored protestantis and act of supremacy
    • -ruled for 45 years
  31. black death
    • a. natural disaster in europe
    • b. -economic, social, political, cultural upheavel
    • -declined population by 25-50%
  32. decamon
    • a. work by giovanni boccaccio
    • -describes plage and what happened
  33. pogroms
    • a. worst organized massacres
    • b. carried out in germany and destroyed jewish communities
  34. jacquerie
    • a. peasant revolt in northern france
    • b. peasants be madddddd
  35. wat typler and john bell
    • a. leaders of widespread peasant rebellion
    • b. burned houses and killed officials
  36. florence's ciompi
    • a. woolworkers
    • b. revolted and got some concessions
  37. longbow
    • a. weapon invented by welsh
    • b. used by english soldiers in hundred year's war
  38. henry v
    • a. english king (1413-1422)
    • b. -renewed war and invaded france
    • -reconquered normandy and allianced with duke of burgundy -> treaty of troyes
    • -married catherine
  39. battle of agincourt
    • a. battle b/w england and france in 1415
    • b. french was defeated with 6,000 men dead and english had 300 men dead
  40. scutage
    • a. money payments
    • b. substituted for miliatry service. made monarchs :)
  41. gabelle and taille
    • a. salt & hearth tax
    • b. -used by phillip VI for revenue after hundred years war
    • -heavy on low and middle class
  42. ***golden bull of charles iv
    • a. document by charles IV that helped principle of election
    • b. 4 princes and 3 ecc. leaders elect holy roman emporer
  43. avignon
    • a. city in rome and capital of univeral church
    • b. -decline in papal prestige here
    • -symbol of abuses within church
  44. catherine of siena
    • a. religious leader from 1347-1380
    • b. told pope gregory xi to return to rome
  45. ***great schism
    • a. time when europe slit in 2 for clement or urban. lasted 40 years
    • b. bad effect on church and christedom.
  46. christine de pizan
    • a. vernacular writer from 1364-1430
    • b. wrote "book of the city of ladies"
  47. giotto
    • a. forerunner of italian renaissance painting
    • b. drew figures that were solid, rounded, and 3d depth. realistic human qualities
  48. conciliarism
    • a. thoery that only church council and end schism and bring reform to church
    • b. people had conflicts deciding who would call the council.
  49. ***council of constance
    • a. made by sigismund from 1414-1418
    • b. ended schism and made cardinal oddone colonnto to pope martin v
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