1. Both Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes are able to carry out what two biochemical processes?
    • The krebs cycle
    • oxidative phosphorylation
  2. in order for a retrovirus to insert into the host cell's chromosome it must first...
    convert it's RNA to DNA
  3. for retroviruses to enter the latent phase, they must...
    convert their RNA to DNA
  4. the best support for the theory that mitochondria are just engulfed prokaryotes is what?
    mitochondrial resmbles prokaryotic DNA
  5. The nucleoid is....
    the region of the cell where the one circular loop of chromosomal DNA is located.
  6. The ribosomes are responsible for.....
    protein synthesis
  7. Bacteria can convert  theirselves to _______ when conditons are poor.
  8. The capsule is....
    a sticky layer surrounding the cell that helps in the attachment of the cell to a surface.
  9. the most important goal in duneloside analogs (like AZT and ddl) when used in HIV infected patients, are....
    to prevent the replication of the viral genome
  10. What are the two main loer respiratory diseases?
    Bronchitis and pneumonia
  11. The HIV virus is what kind of virus, and what family of virsues does it beling to?
    • lentivirus
    • retrovirus
  12. letnimiruses are characterized by...
    a long incubation preiod
  13. a retrovirus is a ___ virus.
  14. A retrovirus is an RNA virus that is duplicated in a host cell using ...
    the reverse transcriptase enzyme to produce DNA from its RNA genome.
  15. Retroviruses are _______viruses that belong to the viral family Retroviridae.
  16. HIV causes..
  17. what are the four viruses known to cause (gastroenteritis)?
    rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus and astrovirus
  18. what are the 7 bacteria that can cause gastroenteritis?
    Campylobacter jejuni, e.coli, salmonella, shigella, cholera, clostridium and staph. a.
  19. TB is caused by...
  20. HIV infection results in a reduction of  ___ cell number and impairs their function.
  21. in HIV, macrophages can become resovoirs for...
    HIV virus replication
  22. in HIV, interferons can be produced to...
    restrict replication
  23. in HIV, T lymphocytes recognize these antigen as...
  24. exotoxin A can block...
    protein synthesis
  25. the cross linking of two linear polymers can stop because of..
    the inhibition of the transpeptidase action
  26. the cause of sickle cell anemia is..
    a mutant allele
  27. cell anemia is a _____ disorder
  28. what three factors have a considerable effect on the regulation of glomerular filtration?
    • pH of the blood constituents
    • blood pressure in the glomerular capillaries
    • glucose concetration in the blood
  29. diffusion only occurs when there is...
    a concentration graident across a membrane (different concentrations)
  30. how do vaccines prevent disease generally?
    carrying surface antigens from pathogens
  31. the clotting and deposisition of fibrin will hide _____ present on a cell surface.
  32. how does the structure of the villi help in the process of digestion?
    provide more surface area for the absorption of nutrients
  33. autotrophs utilize _____ as their carbon source..
  34. heterotrophs rely on ________ nutrients created by other organisms
  35. a wild-type bacterium is one that...
    possesses all the characteristics normal to that particular species
  36. an auxotroph is ...
    a bacterium that cannot survive on minimal medium b/c it cant snythesize a molecule it needs to live
  37. facultative anaerobes will use _____ when it's around but ....
    • oxygen
    • dont need it
  38. tolerant anaerobes can grow in the presence of _____ but do not use it in their ______.
    • oxygen
    • metabolism
  39. obligate anaerobes are poisoned by....
  40. obligate anaerobes commonly infect...
  41. the log phase is when,
    the log of the population  size grows linearly with time
  42. the lag phase is when
    cell division does not occur even if the growth conditions are ideal
  43. the carrying capacity is...
    the maximum population at the stationary phase
  44. bacteria passes through the log phase to the ______ phase
    stationary phase
  45. the stationary phase is when...
    cells cease to divide for lack of nutrients
  46. the death phase is when
    they die
  47. the order of the bacterial phases are...
    • lag phase
    • log (exponential phase)
    • stationary phase
    • death phase
  48. how many bacterial phases are there?
  49. the bacteria responsible for botulism is a gram______ bacteria
  50. some types of gram positive bacteria form _____ under unfavorable conditions
  51. the metabolic reactivation of an endospore in termed...
  52. saprophytes are...
    fungi that feed off of dead plants and animals
  53. parasites are...
    fungi that feed off of living organisms while doing harm to the host.
  54. mutualists are...
    fungi that live in a symbiotic relationship between the organisms where both of them benefit.
  55. the regions in the fungi that are specialized to reproduce sexually are called..
  56. a cell with two nuceli  is called...
  57. a obligate intracellular parasite is a....
  58. a virus that infects bacteria is called a....
  59. the lytic cycle of a phage is... (6 steps)
    • 1. attachment of phage to host and injection of chromosome
    • 2. breakdown of bacterial chromosome by phage-specific enzyme
    • 3. replication of phage chromosome using bacterial materials and phage enzymes
    • 4. expression of phage genes to produce phage structural components
    • 5. assembly of progeny phage particles
    • 6.release of progeny phage by lysis of bacterial wall
  60. the lysogenic cycle of a phage is (5 steps)
    • 1. the phage bind to host
    • 2. the phage DNA enters the host cells
    • 3. the phage DNA intergrates and becomes a noninfective prophage
    • 4. chromosome with intergrated prophage replicates
    • 5. in rare cases, the prophage may seperate and the cell will be induced to lyse
  61. the dominant form of a virus genome is called a...
  62. + RNA viruses must _____ RNA-dependent RNA pol and do not have to...
    • encode
    • carry it
  63. -RNA viruses must _____ RNA dependent RNA pol and _____ it too.
    • carry
    • encode
  64. Retroviruses must encode..
    reverse transcriptase
  65. two major examples of retroviruses are...
    • HIV
    • HTLV (human T cell lukemia virus)
  66. double stranded DNA viruses often ____ enzymes required for ______ synthesis and DNA replication
    • encode
    • dNTP
  67. humoral immunity is...
    specific protection by antibodies or immunoglobulins
  68. the light and heavy chain of antibodies are connected by...
    disulfide bonds
  69. the two regions of the antibody are the...
    constant and variable regions
  70. the five classes of immunoglobulins are..
    • IgG
    • IgA
    • IgM
    • IgD
    • IgE
  71. the molecule that an antibody binds to is known as the....
  72. examples of antigens are...
    • viral capsid proteins
    • bacterial surface proteins
    • and toxins
  73. the small site that an antibody recognizes within a larger molecule is called an...
  74. when a small molecule becomes antigenic is known as...
  75. antibodies are produced by
    B cells
  76. plasma cells actively produce and secrete...
    antibody protein into the plasma
  77. memory cells ....
    stay dormant until antigen appears, then quickly produce antibodies to eliminate symptoms of illness
  78. T helpers are ____ cells
  79. T killers are ___ cells
  80. cytoxic T cells are...
    T killer cells
  81. The T helper cell is the host of _____.
  82. the role of the T killer cell is to...
    destroy abnormal host cells
  83. the T in T cells stands for ...
  84. the protein on the T cell surface that can bind atigen is the ....
    T cell receptor
  85. an important group of cell surface proteins are called...
    The major histocompatibility complex MHC
  86. the cells that have MHC II is called...
    antigen-presenting cells (APCs)
  87. The two APCs are...
    B cells and macrophages
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