EXP-Chapter 1

  1. Who examined effect of retention intervals on memory
    Herman Ebbinghaus
  2. The time b/t when an item is initially learned & when it is retrieved or remembered.
    Retention Interval
  3. The amt of information retained over a retention interval.
    Savings Score
  4. studying after material has been thoroughly learned
  5. spacing your study improves your study efficiency.
    Spacing effect
  6. Who established associate learning: learn words linked together?
    Mary Calkins
  7. Immediate recall (when the test occurs right after learning), items which were most recently learned are remembered better than items from the middle of the list.
    Recency Effect
  8. Psychology must only study directly observable behavior.
  9. A situation in which a relation exists between a stimulus & an outcome.

    the organism demonstrates behavior or response that show that the organism has learned the association between the stimulus and the outcome. 
    Classical Conditioning
  10. Organisms learn to emit responses or behaviors, in response to a stimulus, to achieve desirable outcomes or avoiding undesirable outcomes
    Operant Conditioning
  11. Who focused on memory in its natural use. 

    Memory is a social phenomenon & based on meaning
    Frederick Bartlett
  12. An approach to psychology, which emphasizes hidden mental processes.
    Cognitive Psych.
  13. Study of the role of the brain in producing cognition.
    Cognitive Neuroscience
  14. Set of observations, which occurs under controlled
    circumstances determined by the experimenter.
  15. the factors that the experimenter manipulates among different conditions.
    Independent Variable
  16. The observations that we measure or record in
    response to the independent variable.  
    Dependent Variable
  17. neither the participant nor the experimenter knows which condition the participant is in during the experiment.
    Double-blind procedures
  18. The person must generate the target memory.
  19. matching one’s memory to presented choices.
  20. draw on non-conscious processes
    Implicit Tests
  21. where information was learned from.
    Source Judgements
  22. our knowledge and awareness of memory.
    Metamemory Judgements
  23. correlating brain damage with behavioral deficits in memory.
  24. memory as a model studying animal of human memory.
    Animal Memory
  25. provides an excellent way of measuring the changes that happen in the brain as a person engages in a memory task.
    • EEG
    • Electroencephalography
  26. Measures blood flow in the brain using radioactive chemicals.

    very good at making spatial maps of the brain and pinpointing where in the brain activity is taking place.
    • PET
    • Positron Emission Tomography
  27. Measures blood flows by detecting magnetic fields

    It allows the researcher to both determine where in the brain a particular memory function is taking place and how it changes over time.
    • MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imagery)
    • fMRI (Functional Magnetic Resonance Imagery)
  28. memory for the things we need to do in the future.
    Prospective memory
Card Set
EXP-Chapter 1
Chapter 1- Intro to Memory