Who examined effect of retention intervals on memory
The time b/t when an item is initially learned & when it is retrieved or remembered.
The amt of information retained over a retention interval.
studying after material has been thoroughly learned
spacing your study improves your study efficiency.
Who established associate learning: learn words linked together?
Immediate recall (when the test occurs right after learning), items which were most recently learned are remembered better than items from the middle of the list.
Psychology must only study directly observable behavior.
A situation in which a relation exists between a stimulus & an outcome.
the organism demonstrates behavior or response that show that the organism has learned the association between the stimulus and the outcome.
Organisms learn to emit responses or behaviors, in response to a stimulus, to achieve desirable outcomes or avoiding undesirable outcomes
Who focused on memory in its natural use.
Memory is a social phenomenon & based on meaning
An approach to psychology, which emphasizes hidden mental processes.
Study of the role of the brain in producing cognition.
Set of observations, which occurs under controlled
circumstances determined by the experimenter.
the factors that the experimenter manipulates among different conditions.
The observations that we measure or record in
response to the independent variable.
neither the participant nor the experimenter knows which condition the participant is in during the experiment.
The person must generate the target memory.
matching one’s memory to presented choices.
draw on non-conscious processes
where information was learned from.
our knowledge and awareness of memory.
correlating brain damage with behavioral deficits in memory.
memory as a model studying animal of human memory.
provides an excellent way of measuring the changes that happen in the brain as a person engages in a memory task.
Measures blood flow in the brain using radioactive chemicals.
very good at making spatial maps of the brain and pinpointing where in the brain activity is taking place.
Positron Emission Tomography
Measures blood flows by detecting magnetic fields
It allows the researcher to both determine where in the brain a particular memory function is taking place and how it changes over time.
MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imagery)
fMRI (Functional Magnetic Resonance Imagery)
memory for the things we need to do in the future.
Chapter 1- Intro to Memory