History of the Christian Church and Theology Lecture 7 – The Reformation

  1. Understand and be able to match the key reformers with their reformation periods (Late Medieval/Pre-Reformation, German, or Swiss) and their contributions. (Sect. 31–34)

    Late Medieval Reformers — Pre-Reformation
    31.1. John Wyclif (c.1330-1384) and the Lollards •

    • The church focused on preventing heresy by keeping the Bible in Latin—believing that thecommon people could not accurately interpret the Bible; therefore they must go to the priest tounderstand it.•
    • Wyclif noted that God gave the OT to the Jews in Hebrew and the NT to the Christian church inGreek, the widely-used languages of their day.•

    Wyclif wanted to give the Bible to people in their own language and trust God to illumine theirminds as they read it.•

    He adopted a program to teach people to read.• He was a reformer in a time when reformation was unpopular.

     31.2. John Hus (c. 1372-1415)•

    A professor and High Chancellor at the University of Prague in Czechoslovakia.•

    • Was inspired by Wyclif’s idea to translate the Bible into people’s own languages. DecidedWyclif was right.• Translated the Bible into Czech.
    • The church sent an inquisition to stop him but they could notfind him because the people loved him and hid his whereabouts.•

    Openly criticized the Pope as being like an antichrist.•

    • He was invited to the Council of Constance, which resolved the
    • issue of three popes.
    • The councilappointed one pope, thus solving the Great Schism.•
    • Hus was tried as a heretic.

    While being burned at the stake, he preached a sermon that scribeswrote down. Thus began the Czechoslovak Hussite church.
  2. Understand and be able to match the key reformers with their reformation periods (Late Medieval/Pre-Reformation, German, or Swiss) and their contributions. (Sect. 31–34)

    The German Reformation
    Martin Luther (1483-1546)

    32.2.1. Thunderstorm

    Just before entering law school, he was struck by lightning and thought he was going to die. “SaintAnne, save me and I will become a monk.”

    32.2.2. Monk     A few days after the storm, he became a novice Augustinian monk, which was a life-changingevent. He was brilliant, the most serious monk in the monastery. Had many theological questionsand was always worried about his sin.

    32.2.3. Journey to RomeHis monastery sent him to Rome. Troubled by the clergy’s wealth and lack of concern for people’ssouls, he came home with more doubts and questions.

    32.2.4. Professor at Wittenberg

    32.2.5. “Salvation by faith alone” – the breakthrough idea that drove the Reformationo We are saved not by works but by faith in Christ’s perfect, finished work on the Cross.

    If we try to work to please God, we will always fail. We need not work to please him.

    Good works are a natural, important outflow of salvation and love for God.

    32.2.6. 95 Theses (points for debate)Most theses were concerned with the issue of indulgences.

    32.2.7. Diet of Worms (1521)

    32.2.8. Marriage to Katherine von Bora
  3. Understand and be able to match the key reformers with their reformation periods (Late Medieval/Pre-Reformation, German, or Swiss) and their contributions. (Sect. 31–34)

    The Swiss Reformation
    33.1. Hulderich Zwingli (1484-1531)

    – leader of the Swiss Reformed Church in Zurich 

    33.1.1. Humanist influence — the Christian humanist, Erasmus was his hero.

    33.1.2. Call to ZurichHe read Luther’s books about papal authority and indulgences, which caused him to have a“conversion” and he began preaching reform.

    33.1.3. “Reformation by Democracy”Switzerland had extremely democratic town councils, which was unusual for Europe at the time.Zwingli proposed an open debate between himself and the Roman Catholic Church, whichZwingli dominated and won. Therefore the town council had to vote in Zwingli and his party.

    33.1.4. Reforms — introduced 67 theses/reforms against indulgences and papal authority (similar toMartin Luther).

    33.1.5. Marburg Colloquy (1529) — Zwingli fully agreed with Luther on 14 of 15 key points of doctrine,but sharply disagreed on the Lord’s Supper.• Luther believed the bread and wine do not change into Christ’s body and blood but that Jesus isphysically present. Zwingli believed the Lord’s Supper is only symbolic. They disagreed sosharply, they never spoke again. This marked the beginning of the long history of Protestant divisions. 
  4. Understand and be able to match the key reformers with their reformation periods (Late Medieval/Pre-Reformation, German, or Swiss) and their contributions. (Sect. 31–34)

    The Swiss Reformation in Geneva
    34.2. John Calvin (1509-1564) 34.2.1.

    Biblical humanism — Calvin was deeply influenced by Erasmus.

    34.2.2. Exile from France• While studying theology at the University of Paris, Calvin was influenced by Luther and otherreformers. He helped Leonard Kopp write a speech that infuriated the Bishop of Paris. Thebishop persuaded the king of France to kick Calvin and Kopp out of France.

    34.2.3. Life in Strasbourg• Strasbourg was a free city, not French or German, but open to both nationalities.

    34.2.4. Institutes of the Christian Religion — the first, major Protestant systematic theology – amonumental work.

    34.2.5. First call to Geneva (1536)• There he met William Farel, a fiery preacher and devout evangelical, who urged Calvin towork with him to thoroughly reform Geneva.

    • 34.2.6. Early reforms• Calvin proposed new strict moral code based on the Bible that
    • would be the basis of the city’slaws. Naturally, the people of Geneva believed that they had thrown away one church only tosee it replaced by an identical twin; in particular, they saw Calvin's reforms as imposing anew form of papacy on the people, only with different names and different people 

    34.2.7. Forced to flee Geneva• The city saw Calvin's reforms as imposing a new form of papacy on the people, only withdifferent names and different people. Weary of the stringent discipline imposed on them,expelled Calvin and Farel.

    34.2.8. Marriage• He married Idelette de Bure. After her death he became a bachelor, scholar and preacher.

    34.2.9. 2nd call to Geneva: The Consistory• The Consistory was a deliberative body that made up laws for Geneva based on the Bible. Theyinvited Calvin and Farel to return, giving them a mandate to reform the city. They established atheocracy. If convicted of heresy, one could be executed.
  5.  Recognize Martin Luther’s four key beliefs. (Sect. 32.2.9)
    Luther’s Key beliefs Priesthood of all believers — because of Christ’s high-priestly sacrifice, all believers cancome into God’s presence to confess their sins. They need not go through a human priest toconfess sin; therefore they can function as their own priests. 

    • Salvation by faith alone — we are saved only by faith in Christ’s finished work
    • on the cross,not by works. However, good works are the natural, important outflow of our salvation andlove for God Two sacraments — baptism and the Lord’s Supper are the only Biblical sacraments. Lutherreduced the number of sacraments from seven to these two – a major change. These twosacraments are the channels of grace that strengthen us to live holier lives. The Bible as the sole authority — the Bible is our final authority instead of popes or churchcouncils.
  6. Recognize John Calvin’s major theological ideas and their descriptions, including the concepts of hisTULIP theology. (Sect. 34.3)
    Calvin’s Theological ideas

    34.3.1. Predestination — God’s sovereignty is supreme. Everything that happens is under God’s completecontrol, including a person’s salvation.

    34.3.2. Union of Church and State — a theocracy that unites church and state is good.34.3.3. TULIP – an acrostic summarizing his theological ideas. Total depravity – because of the Fall, we are all born into sin. Until Christ is in our life wecannot please God or earn his favor in anything we do. Unconditional election – at the beginning of time God chooses the elect, who will be saved;He also chooses those who will be lost. Limited atonement – Christ’s shed blood covers the sins of the elect only, not the lost. Irresistible Grace – the elect will come to Christ before they die. They do not have the freewill to reject him. Perseverance of the saints — the saved are eternally secure in their salvation and cannot loseit. “All those who are truly born again will be kept by God's power and will persevere asChristians until the end of their lives, and...only those who persevere until the end have beentruly born again.” (Wayne Grudem, Biblical Doctrine (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1999), p.336).

    34.3.4. Baptism — Infant baptism has nothing to do with salvation or removal of an infant’s original sin.Baptism is like circumcision because it identifies the infant with God’s covenant people.

     34.3.5. Lord’s Supper — a sacrament through which we receive grace. The elements of bread and wineare not changed into Christ’s body and blood. Yet Christ is present spiritually and we receive himspiritually when we receive the elements.
  7. Recognize key contributions and their contributors to the English  Reformation. (Sect. 36)

    Henry VIII and the political Reformation of England
    The church’s not allowing Henry VIII to divorce Catherine was the driving force behind the EnglishReformation.

    36.1.1. Arthur Tudor

    36.1.2. Catherine of Aragon — marries Arthur, brother of Henry VIII.• Arthur dies; Catherine agrees to marry young Henry VIII (age 9). 

    36.1.3. Papal Dispensation — the church considered it incest to marry your dead brother’s wife. Since themarriage between Arthur and Catherine was not consummated, the papal dispensation ruled that theywere never married. Thus, Henry VIII could marry Catherine.

    36.1.4. Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Birth of Mary – Henry does not want a woman to rule England. He wants a son! Still births36.1.4.3. Desire for divorce — desperate for a male heir, Henry seeks divorce. Current pope could notgrant divorce because “former popes cannot make mistakes.” Cardinal Wolsey (Henry VIII’s Number 1 theological troubleshooter) sent to Rome to pleadfor an annulment — the pope refuses. Break with Rome — since the Roman Catholic Church would not grant him a divorce, Henrymakes a formal break with Rome. Sets up his own Church of England, claiming the king is itshead. The Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer, grants Henry a divorce fromCatherine. 

    36.1.5. Marriage to Anne Boleyn, a Protestant – birth of Elizabeth• Anne Boleyn did not produce a son. The Lord Chancellor Cromwell falsely accused her of thetreason of adultery so she could be executed and Henry could remarry.

    36.1.6. Act of Supremacy (1534) — Henry formally makes himself head of the Church of England. SomeHouse of Lords churchmen, many of them monastery abbots, disagreed.

    36.1.7. Dissolution of monasteries – by Henry to get back at the House of Lords’ abbots.

    36.1.8. The Six Articles — Parliament reaffirms Catholic doctrine, making the break with Rome purelypolitical.

    36.1.9. Marriage to Jane Seymour – birth of Edward VI

    36.1.10. Act of Succession – “male primogeniture.” The king’s eldest son is the next to rule.• First in line to the throne is Edward, age 9, then his adult sister, Mary, and then Elizabeth.
  8. Recognize features of the Catholic Reformation (counter-Reformation). (Sect. 38)
  9. Recognize, regarding the expansion of global Christianity, features of the social paradox and analyze whythe African church is growing phenomenally, and the implications of the demographic shift. (Sect. 40)
  10. TEXTBOOK LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Recognize Luther’s final response to the Diet of Worms’s requestto recant (retract) some of his writings and recognize his response’s implications for the foundations ofProtestantism (Chapter 7, pp. 153–155, Turning Points: Decisive Moments in the History of Christianity, byMark A. Noll).
    coming soon
  11. TEXTBOOK LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Recognize the main issues that most Protestants agreed on andthose they disagreed on (Chapter 8, Protestantisms section, pp. 192–194, Turning Points: Decisive Momentsin the History of Christianity, by Mark A. Noll).
    coming soon
  12. Recognize key contributions and their contributors to the English  Reformation. (Sect. 36)

    The Edwardine Reformation (1547-1553)
    36.2.1. Council of Regency — advised King Edward VI, who was too young to rule.

    36.2.2. Archbishop Cranmer’s Influence — advances Protestantism by educating Edward with Protestantteachers. Book of Common Prayer — extremely important Anglican guide to worship. IncludesProtestant doctrine, ideas and reforms. English Bible must be in every church and open for anyone to read. Repeal of Henry VIII’s Six Articles — Edward makes many changes along Protestant lines.He removed Catholic doctrine so it was no longer “the law of the land.” Celibacy not required of clerics Protestant Bishops appointedHenry VIII opened the door to the Reformation. However, the Reformation in England reallyhappened under Edward VI. Anglican Creed (42 Articles – 39 Articles)36.2.3. Edward’s Death
  13. Recognize key contributions and their contributors to the English  Reformation. (Sect. 36)

    The Marian reaction (1553-1558)
    Queen Mary wants to return the Church of England to Rome and Catholicism. Seeks to removeProtestant reform.36.3.1. Marian Martyrs — trials for Protestant heretics; many executed.36.3.2. Marian Exiles — most Protestants driven out from England by death or exile.
  14. Recognize key contributions and their contributors to the English  Reformation. (Sect. 36)

    Elizabeth I and the Via Media
     Via Media•

    • With the country deeply divided between Protestants (Edward’s followers) and Catholics (Mary’sfollowers), Elizabeth makes one of the greatest compromises in church history.
    • Although a Protestant, she ensures the compromise has something for everyone.•

    Borrows Catholic liturgy, music, priestly dress and incense.• Embraces Protestant doctrine, beliefs. Takes a Calvinist approach. Priests can marry and there isno transubstantiation in the Lord’s Supper.

    36.4.2. Acts of Conformity — if people did not like the Church of England, they were to leave.

    36.4.3. Revised Creed — 39 articles of the Church of England.

    36.4.4. New Act of Supremacy — Elizabeth makes herself (and all future kings and queens) head of theChurch of England, with the Archbishop of Canterbury under her.

    36.4.5. Papal reaction

    36.4.6. Excommunication of Elizabeth

    36.4.7. Spanish Armada (1588) — the Pope attempted to use Spain’s Armada to forcibly win Englandback to the church. “Little” England won despite Spain’s mighty naval empire — the start of theBritish Empire. 
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History of the Christian Church and Theology Lecture 7 – The Reformation
History of the Christian Church and Theology Lecture 7 – The Reformation