Bio Final

  1. Where does mechanical and chemical digestion start?
    Both start in mouth
  2. Where does mechanical and chemical disestion end?
  3. Where does most of chemical digestion occur?
    Small intense
  4. Which enzymes are responsible for the breakdown of carbs?
  5. Which enzymes are responsible for the breakdown of protiens?
  6. Which enzymes are responsibile for the breakdown of fats?
  7. What food group should be at the base of one's diet and why?

    They provide the body with complex carbs, fiber, vitamins and minerals
  8. Define essential nutrients
    Needed by the body, but the body cells are unable to make them from other compounds
  9. What is the difference btw simple and complex carbs?
    Complex carbs take longer to be broken down and as a result one doesn't get hungrry as fast.
  10. What food group has the most energy (calories) per gram weight?
  11. Where does absorption of digested nutrients occur?
    Small intestine, through small finger like folds called villi
  12. Discuss the ways in which fiber is beneficial.
    • 1. Fills one up more.
    • 2. Increases water absorption in the colon and faciliates bowel movements
    • 3. Lowers body levels of cholesterol
  13. CARBS
    Main source of energy and are used for production of heat, energy and movement.
  14. Proteins
    For growth and replacement and repair cells.
  15. Fats
    Source of energy and serve to store vitamins (fat not water soluble)
  16. Vitamins
    Proper body function, many chemical reactions in the body
  17. Minerals
    Body Functions
  18. Water
    The medium through which neutriants are transported to and wastes removes from all body cells

    Involved in chemical reactions that occur in body cells
  19. What is the relationship btw Saturated fats and cholesterol?
    Cholesterol and fats travel in the blood throughout the body in lipoporteins for storage in liver.

    Low-density lipoproteins (bad chol): transport chol. from cells/tissues that have more then needed to others that need.

    High-density lipoproteins (good chol): transport cholesterol to liver.

    LDLS causse plaque build up in the blood stream leading to cardio disease.
  20. Saprophyte
    fungi (decomposers) some produce toxins that can be deadly if ingested
  21. Aerobic
    A bacteria that uses oxygen in respiration
  22. Active Stage
    reproducing itself
  23. Latent Stage
    Everytime the host cells divide, the viral DNA is also replicated and the new cells have viral DNA inserted in their own DNA
  24. Why arent viruses considered part of any kingdom even though they replicate?
    They can't reproduce by themselves, they need living cells in order to do so.
  25. Which group of microrganisms is responsible for the production of various products? (cheze, yogart, wine, bread)
  26. Give examples of viruses who undergo a latent stage.
    DNA/retro viruses
  27. Bacteria Benefits
    Help animals break down organic matter

    Farming, provide plants with nutrients, nitrogen
  28. Bacteria Harm
    Dental decay,throat infection, pheumonia, meningitis, gonorrhea, diphtheria, TB, leprosy.
  29. How could you measure the rate of fermenation using an activity involving this process
    Use balloons to measure carbon dioxide in yeast.
  30. Fungi Benefits
    Useful source of food such as mushrooms, and yeast.
  31. Fungi Harm
    Causes diseases in organisms, most skin/nail diseases are caused by fungi
  32. What is fermentation? What are the products of the different types of fermentation? (including muscle cells)
    Certain cells can also get energy in the absence of oxygen

    Muscle cells breakdown pyruvic acid and produce lactic acid

    Produces bread and alchohol
  33. Virus
    Have process of nucleic acid, surrounded by a protein coat, infect animals, plants, fungi and bacteria.

    • Two types of viruses
    • Those that reproduse right away and kill the cell and others that don't, No med to treat them
  34. Bacteria
    • Do not have membrane bound orgarells.
    • Not all bad
    • Play important role in farming and in our diets
Card Set
Bio Final