Bio Ch. 19

  1. anaerobe
    an organism that can live and grow in the absence of oxygen
  2. Archaea
    one of life's three domains; consists of prokaryotes that are only distantly related to members of the domain Bacteria
  3. Bacteria
    one of life's three domains; consists of prokaryotes that are only distantly related to members of the domain Archaea
  4. bacteriophage
    a virus that specifically infects bacteria
  5. binary fission
    the process by which a single bacterium divides in half, producing two identical offspring
  6. biofilm
    a community of prokaryotes of one or more species, in which the prokaryotes secrete and are embedded in slime that adheres to a surface
  7. bioremediation
    the use of organisms to remove or detoxify toxic substances in the environment
  8. conjugation
    in prokaryotes, the transfer of DNA from one cell to another via a temporary connection; in single-celled eukaryotes, the mutual exchange of genetic material between two temporarily joined cells
  9. endospore
    a protective resting structure of some rod-shaped bacteria that withstands unfavorable environmental conditions
  10. flagellum
    a long, hair-like, motile extension of the plasma membrane; in eukaryotic cells, it contains microtubules arranged in a 9x2 pattern; its movement propels some cells through fluids
  11. host
    the prey organism on or in which a parasite lives; it is harmed by the relationship
  12. nitrogen-fixing bacteria
    a bacterium that possesses the ability to remove nitrogen from the atmosphere and combine it with hydrogen to produce ammonium
  13. pathogenic
    capable of producing disease; referring to an organism with such a capability
  14. plasmid
    a small, circular piece of DNA located in the cytoplasm of many bacteria; usually does not carry genes required for the normal function of the bacterium, but may carry genes, such as those for antibiotic resistance, that assist bacterial survival in certain environments
  15. prion
    a protein that, in mutated form, acts as an infectious agent that causes certain neurodegenerative diseases, including kuru and scrapie
  16. viroid
    a particle of RNA that is capable of infecting a cell and of directing the production of more viroids; responsible for certain plant diseases
  17. virus
    a noncellular parasitic particle that consists of a protein coat surrounding genetic material; multiplies only within a cell of a living organism (the host)
Card Set
Bio Ch. 19
Bio 19