AP Chapter 6 (3)

  1. What organs are considered secondary endocrine organs?
    • Heart
    • Kidneys
    • Digestive organs
    • Liver
    • Skin
  2. What hormone is released by heart?
    What is its function?
    • Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
    • Inhibits sodium reabsorption by the kidney tubules.
  3. What are the hormones secreted by the Kidney?
    What are their functions?
    • Renin: Stimulates aldosterone secretion indirectly via the renin-angiotension system.
    • Erythropoietin: Stimulates production of red blood cells in bone marrow.
  4. What hormone is released by the stomach?
    What is its function?
    • Gastrin
    • Stimulates acid secretion by stomach and intestinal motility.
  5. What hormones are secreted by the small intestine?
    What are their functions?
    • Secretin, Cholecytokinin (CCK), Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP)
    • Regulate gastrointestinal motility and secretion; regulate exocrine secretion by liver and pancreas.
  6. What hormone is produced by the liver?
    What is its function?
    • Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs)
    • Promote bone and soft tissue growth
  7. What three organs are needed to produce 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3?
    What is the function of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3?
    • Skin, liver, and Kidney
    • Promotes absorption of calcium by intestine.
  8. The concentration of free hormone in the blood depends on what three factors?
    • 1. The rate of hormone secretion
    • 2. the amount of hormone transported bound to carrier proteins
    • 3. the rate at which the hormone is metabolized
  9. Endocrine cells alter hormone secretion in response to what two types of signals?
    • Neural Signals
    • Humoral (bloodborne) Signals
  10. Describe neural signals.
    These directly regulate hormone secretion by the hypothalamus, posterior pituitary gland, and adrenal medulla, which can affect the secretion of other hormones.
  11. What are the three basic categories of Humoral signals?
    • 1. Hormones
    • 2. Ions
    • 3. Metabolites
  12. Describe Humoral signals.
    Concentrations of Ions or metabolites in the blood opperate through negative feedback to regulate the secretion of hormones.
  13. All of the hypothalamic tropic hormones are affected by what?
    A Circadian Rhythm
  14. What two factors control the Circadian Rhythm?
    • Endocrine input: Melatonin
    • Neural input from the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus.
  15. What role do carrier proteins play involving hormones?
    They increase the half life of hormones, so that they are present in the blood for a longer period, by decreasing the rate of their metabolism.
  16. What are hormones degraded by once they are inside of a cell?
    Enzymes located in lysosomes
  17. Peptides hormones found in the blood can be metabolized by what?
    Proteolytic enzymes
  18. Why are Steroid and Thyroid hormones metabolized more slowly than peptides and amines?
    • 1. Steroids and Thyroid hormones are transported in blood bound to carrier proteins.
    • 2. The fat-soluable steroids and thyroid hormones can be stored temporarily in fatty tissue.
  19. What is Acromegaly?
    A disease in which Hypersecretion of growth hormone causes bones to thicken and organs to grow in excess in adults.
  20. What is Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus caused by?
    Hyposecretion of insulin from beta cells of the pancreas.
  21. In a primary secretion disorder, the abnormality originates where?
    In the endocrine gland that secretes the hormone.
  22. In a secondary secretion disorder, the abnormality originates where?
    In the endocrine cells of either the anterior pituitary or the hypothalamus, which secrete the tropic hormone.
  23. What is Antagonism?
    A process by which the effects of hormones oppose each other.
  24. What is the difference between an additive and a synergistic effect?
    • Additive effect: The net effect equals the sum of the individual effects.
    • Synergistic: The net effect is greater than the sum of the individual effects.
  25. Describe the process of permissiveness.
    The presence of one hormone is needed for another hormone to exert its actions.
Card Set
AP Chapter 6 (3)
Secondary endocrine organs, Hormone level control, and Hormone interaction.