1. What is fault management in network management?
    Fault management is activity identifying, isolating and connecting network problems
  2. Why fault management is considered the most important task in network management?
    To make network available continuosly and immediately. To increase network relaibility by quick troubleshooting and recovery.
  3. What are the activities of peformance management in network management?
    • Monitoring and measuring various aspects of performance including establishing a network baseline. Maintaining a consistent and acceptable level of overall performance. Determining the likely future network resource requirements (capacity planning)
    • FM Benefits: Increase reliability, fast problem detection, troubleshooting network problems. More productive management.
  4. Utilization
    • Usually expressed in the form of a percentage in which the usage of a resource is compared with its maximum operational capacity.
    • Measures the use of a particular resource over time.
  5. Accuracy
    The measure of interface traffic that does not result in error and can be expressed in terms of a percentage that compares the success rate to total packet rate over a period of time.
  6. Response time
    The total time required for traffic to travel between two points.
  7. Availability
    The percentage of time for which a network system or application is available to a user.
  8. How do utilization measurements help the network engineer to perform management?
    • Utilization measurements enable the network engineer to identify congestion(or potential congestion), under-utilized resources and unexpected traffic flows within the network These assists the network engineer in identifying network problems(or potential problems).
    • Utilization measurements also provide information for the network engineer to determine the likely future network resource requirement or capacity planning.
  9. The POTS (Plain Old Telephone System) promises a voice quality standard with five nines reliability. What is the amount network downtime allowed per year to satisfy this requirement?
    • 100% - 99.999% = 0.001%
    • Downtime allowed = (0.001/100) + 365 + 24 = 0.0876 hr = 0.0876*60 = 5.3 mins
  10. How are perfomance baselines established and how are they used?
    • Performance baselines are established by gathering network performance data over time under typical operating conditions.
    • Performance baselines can be used to provide a basis for comparison with future performance levels.
    • For example, after the deployment of any major new application, hardware or solution the network performance is measured and then compared with the old performance baseline. This enables the network engineer to verify if the solution requirements have been met.
  11. What are the two protocols commonly used for logging in fault management?
    • SNMP traps
    • Syslog 
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Network Management Tutorial 3