GCSE Geography *

  1. on average ..... of urban populations in the developing world live in squatter settlements
  2. to solve the problem of squatter settlements in the 1980's and 1990's city authorities/souncils used to
    simply bulldoze the sqautter settlements , literally demolishing them to the ground and making residents homeless
  3. why is it impossible for the council/city authorities to use the same method as they did in the 1980's and 1990's to solve the problem of squatter settlements ? and what is there method now ?
    • because nowadays the sheer number and size and squatter settlements makes it impossible to bulldoze them all 
    • plus the city authorities have realised that the residents simply come back and rebuild either in exactly the same place or somewhere else in the city 
    • so now they have developed self-help , site and service and slum redevelopment plans
  4. self help schemes
    these involve the government and local people working together to improve life in the settlement . The government supplies building materials and local people use them to build their own homes . This helps to provide better housing and the money saved on labour can be used to provide basic services like electricity and sewers
  5. site and service schemes
    these schemes are vey similar to self help schemes the only real difference being that with site and service the local council/authority do some work to provide a basic site that the slum dwellers can then build basic services on /connect them to their homes
  6. do the methods actually improve squatter settlements
    despite these schemes , many councils simply cannot keep pace with the number of newcomers from rural areas (rural urban migration) and the rapid natural population growth so dirty crammed , unhealthy shanty towns still remain
  7. the Favela-Barrio project helps people in
    Rio De Janeiro's Favelas
  8. Rio De Janeiro is in
    South east Brazil
  9. Rio De Janeiro has ..... squatter settlements housing ..... of the city's population (more than ...... people)
    • 600
    • 1/5 (20%)
    • 1m
  10. The Favela-Barrio project started in ..... and is so successfu; it's been suggested as a model for redeveloping other squatter settlements
  11. ..... of the ...... funding for the Favela-Barrio project came from the local authority . The rest was provided by an international organisation called the .....-...... ..... ...
    • 40%
    • $200m 
    • Inter-American Development Bank
  12. the Favela Barrio project includes ..... , ..... and ..... improvements
    • social 
    • economic 
    • environmental
  13. social improvements from the Favela Barrio project includes
    • daycare centres and after school schemes to look after children while their parents work 
    • adult education services to improve adult literacy 
    • services to help people affected by drug addiction , alcohol addiction and domestic violence
  14. economic improvments from the Favela Barrio project includes
    • Residents can now apply to legally own their properties
    • Training schemes to help people learn new skills so they can find better jobs and earn more
  15. environmental imprvements from the Favela Barrio project includes
    • replacement of wooden buildings with brick buildings and the removal of homes on dangerously steep slopes 
    • widening and paving of streets to allow easier access (especially for emergancy services) 
    • provision of basic services such as clean water , electricty and weekly rubbish collection
  16. community involement from the Favela Barrio project is one of the most important parts of the project :
    • residents choose which improvments they want in their own favela , so they feel involved 
    • neighbourhood associations are formed to communicate with the residents and make decisions 
    • the new services are staffed by redidents , providing income and helping them to learn new skills
  17. rapid urbanisation in developing world cities causes several major environmental problems :
    • 1 = the increasing urban populations with their old/poor quality cars/lorries etc lead to traffic congestion and air pollution
    • 2 = the lack of sewers in shanty towns leads to water pollution
    • 3 = urban sprawl leads to the destruction of wildlife habitats 
    • 4 = rapid population growth leads to dwindling water supplies 
    • 5 = the desire to develop the economy leads to air and water pollution as factories main objective is to make their goods they do not really consider the enviornment and do not have to operate under strict controls like in developed world cities so chimneys pollute the air and pipes pollute rivers
  18. urban sprawl
    cities getting bigger
  19. in 2002 , some ..... people lived in the main urban area in Rio De Janiero and ...... in the metroplitan region
    • 6 million 
    • 10 million
  20. In the 1990's city authorities set aside ...... to improve living conditions in ..... of the ..... favelas within their boundary
    • £200 million 
    • 60
    • 600
  21. the authorities claimed that they wanted to
    transform the favelas socially and culturally to intergrate them as part of the city . The key objectives were to provide urban improvements primarily urban infrastructure 
  22. the favela barrio project plan included :
    • replacing buildings that were either made of wood or built on dangerous slopes with brick-built housing - the new homes were much larger (4 x 5 metres) and have a yard of equal size 
    • widening selected streets so that emergancy services and waste collection vehicles can gain access 
    • laying pavements , concrete paths , water pipes and electricity cables 
    • improving sanitation , adding health facilities and providing sports areas 
    • using labour from within each favela so that residents can now develop and use new skills - in return the residents have to pay taxes to the authorities 
  23. the favela barrio project is an example of
    slum redevelopment
Card Set
GCSE Geography *