1. chemical messengers that are secreted by endocrine glands and have specialized functions in regulating the activities of specific cells, organs, or both
  2. any one of a large number of hormone like substances secreted by endocrine glands or artificially produced as medications to relieve swelling and inflammation in conditions such as asthma
  3. chemically related to the male sex hormone testosterone; have been used to increase strength and muscle mass.
    anabolic steroids
  4. a hormone secreted by adipocytes
  5. secreted by specialized cells of the brain
  6. secretes hormones that control the activity of other endocrine glands; acts in response to stimuli fromthe hypothalamus
    pituitary gland
  7. stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol
    adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH)
  8. stimulates the secretion of estrogen and the growth of ova in the ovaries of the female
    follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH)
  9. somato-tropic hormone; regulates the growth of bone, muscle and other body tissues
    growth hormone(GH)
  10. stimulates ovulation in the female; stimulates secretion of testosterone in the male
    interstitial cell-stimulating hormone(ICSH)
  11. prolactin; stimulates and maintains the secretion of breast milk in the mother after childbirth
    lactogenic hormone(LTH)
  12. stimulates ovulation in the female and production of the female sex hormone progesterone;  in the male, stimulates the secretion of testosterone
    luteinizing hormone
  13. increases the production of melanin in melanocytes, causing darkening of the pigmentation of the skin
    melanocyte-stimulating hormone
  14. stimulates the growth and secretions of the thyroid gland
    thyroid-stimulating hormone(TSH)
  15. maintains the water balance within the body by promoting the reabsorption of water through the kidneys
    antidiuretic hormone
  16. stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth; stimulates the flow of milk from the mammary glands
  17. a synthetic form of ocytocin that is administered to induce or speed up labor
  18. abnormal enlargement of the extremities(hands and feet) that is caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone after puberty
  19. abnormal overgrowth of the entire body that is caused by excessive secretion of the growth hormone before puberty
  20. pathology resulting in the excessive secretion by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
  21. a condition of reduced secretion due to the partial, or complete, loss of the function of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
  22. any disorder of the pituitary function
  23. pituitary tumor; a slow-growing, benign tumor of the pituitary gland; two types: functioning often produce hormones in large and unregulated amounts; nonfunctioning do not produce significant amounts of hormones
    pituitary adenoma
  24. a benign tumor of the pituitary gland that causes it to produce too much prolactin; causes infertility an changes in menstruation; in males, it causes impotence
  25. caused by insufficient production of the antidiuretic hormone or by the inability of the kidneys to respond appropriately to this hormone
    diabetes insipidus
  26. a synthetic version of the growth hormone that is administered to stimulate growth when the natural supply of growth hormone is insufficient for normal development
    human growth hormone
  27. very small endocrine gland that is located in the central portion of the brain; influences the sleep-wakefulness cycle
    pineal gland
  28. hormone that influences the sleep and wakefulness portions of the circadian cycle
  29. refers to the biological functions that occur within a 24-hour period
    circadian cycle
  30. a tumor of the pineal gland that can disrupt the production of melatonin; can also cause insomnia by disrupting the circadian cycle
  31. a butterfly-shaped gland that lies on either side of the larynx, just below the thyroid cartilage; regulates the body's metabolism
    thyroid gland
  32. influences the rate of metabolism
    thyroxine; triiodothryronine
  33. secreted by cells of the thyroid gland and works with the parathyroid hormone to regulate the calcium levels in the blood and tissues; decreases calcium in blood levels
  34. chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis; an autoimmune disease in which the body's own antibodies attack and destroy the cells of the thyroid gland
    Hashimoto's thyroiditis
  35. a congenital form of hypothyroidism; can cause arrested physical and mental development
  36. adult hypothyroidism; caused by extreme deficiency of thyroid secretion; symptoms include swelling, particularly around eyes and cheeks, fatigue and a subnormal temperature
  37. thyrotoxicosis; an imbalance of metabolism caused by overproduction of thyroid hormones
  38. thyrotoxic crisis; a relatively rare, life-threatening condition caused by exaggerated hyperthyroidism; can cause fever, chest pain, palpitations, shortness of breath, tremors, increased sweating,disorientation and fatigue
    thyroid storm
  39. an autoimmune disorder that is caused by hyperthyroidism, characterized by goiter and or exophthalmos
    Graves' disease
  40. thyromegaly; an abnormal nonmalignant enlargement of the thyroid gland; produces a swelling in front of the neck. 
  41. an abnormal protrusion of the eyeball out of the orbit
  42. a diagnostic test to measure the circulating blood level of thyroid stimulating hormone. Used to detect abnormal thyroid activity from excessive pituitary stimulation
    thyroid-stimulating hormone assay
  43. a form of nuclear medicine used to measure thyroid function
    thyroid scan
  44. medication administered to slow the ability of the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones
    antithyroid drug
  45. radioactive iodine therapy; the administration of radioactive iodine to destroy thyroid cells.  Used to treat chronic hyperthyroid disorders such as Graves' disease
    chemical thyroidectomy
  46. regulate calcium levels throughout the body
    parathyroid glands
  47. works with the hormone calcitonin to regulate the calcium levels in blood and tissues; increases calcium levels
    parathyroid hormone
  48. complication of hyperparathyroidism in which the bone becomes softened and deformed, and may develop cysts
    osteitis fibrosa
  49. condition of periodic, painful muscle spasms and tremors.
  50. located near the midlinein the anterior portion of the thoracic cavity; secretes a hormone that functions as part of the immune system
  51. stimulates the maturation of lymphocytes into T cells of the immune system
  52. a feather shaped organ located posterior to the stomach that functions as part of both the digestive and endocrine systems
  53. those parts of the pancreas that have endocrine functions; control blood sugar levels and glucose metabolism throughout the body
    pancreatic islets
  54. the form in which the liver stores the excess glucose
  55. hormone secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreatic islets in response to low blood sugar levels; increases the glucose level by stimulating the liver to convert glycogen into glucose for release into the bloodstream
  56. hormone secreted b the beta cells of the pancreatic islet in response to high blood sugar levels
  57. group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both
    diabetes mellitus
  58. an autoimmune insulin deficiency disorder caused by the destruction of pancreatic islet beta cells. Symptoms include polydipsia, polyphagia,polyuria, weight loss, blurred vision, extreme fatigue and slow healing
    Type 1 diabetes
  59. an insulin resistance disorder; insulin is produced, but the body doesn't use it effectively, so the body secretes more insulin.
    Type 2 diabetes
  60. medication that works within the cells to combat insulin resistance and to help insulin let blood sugar into the cells
  61. measures average glucose levels over the past 3 weeks; can detect changes more rapidly than the HbA1c test
    fructosamine test
  62. a blood test that measures the average blood glucose level over the previous 3-4 months
    Hemoglobin A1c testing(HbA1c)
  63. caused by very low blood sugar
    insulin shock
  64. caused by very high blood sugar
    diabetic coma
  65. occurs when diabetes damages the tiny blood vessels in the retina, can cause loss of vision
    diabetic retinopathy
  66. suprarenals; controls electrolyte levels within the body; interacts with the sympathetic nervous system in response to stress
    adrenal glands
  67. mineral substances that are normally found in the blood
  68. steroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex
  69. regulates the salt and water levels in the body by increasing sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion by the kidneys
  70. hormones that influence sex-related characteristics
  71. hydrocortisone; has an anti-inflammatory action, regulates the matabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins
  72. adrenaline; stimulates the sympathetic nervous system in response to stress or other stimuli.  Makes the heart beat faster and can raise blood pressure
  73. both a hormone and a neurohormone; plays an important role in the "fight or flight response" by raising blood pressure, strengthening the heartbeat and stimulating muscle contractions
  74. occurs when the adreanal glands do not produce enough of the hormones cortisol or aldosterone.  Characterized by chronic, worsening fatigue and muscle weakness, loss of appetite and weight loss
    Addison's disease
  75. abnormality of electrolyte balance caused by the excessive secretion of aldosterone
  76. disorder of the adrenal glands due to excessive production of aldosterone
    Conn's syndrome
  77. benign tumor of the adrenal medulla that causes the gland to produce excess epinephrine
  78. hypercortisolism; caused by prolonged exposure to high levels of cortisol.  Symptoms include a rounded or "moon face"
    Cushing's syndrome
  79. synthetic hormone used as a vasoconstrictor to treat heart conditions 
  80. any hormone that stimulates the gonads
  81. during pregnancy the placenta secretes this hormone to stimulate the corpus luteum to continue producing the hormones required to maintain the pregnancy
    human chorionic gonadotropin
  82. conditionof excessive mammary development in the male
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