Passive process which the incostal muscle and the diaphram relax causing the chest cavity to decrease in size and air to flow out of the lungs.
Active process which the intercostal muscle and the diaphram contract, expanding the size of the chest cavity and causing air to flow into the lungs
Microscopic sacs of the lungs where gas exchange witht he blood stream takes place
muscle that responds automatically to brain signals but cannot be consciously controlled
the surface formed when slicing through a solid object
muscle that can be consciously controlled
standard reference position for the body in the study of anatomy. In this position the body is standing erect facing the observer with arms down at sides and palms forward
away from the head; usually compared with another structure that is closer to the head.
Ie: lips are inferior to the nose
toward the head.
ie: the chest is superior to the abdomen
- a line drawn vertically from the middle of the armpit to the ankle
- - ears to ankles
the sides; away from the midline of the body
line drawn down the center of the body; dividing it into right and left halves.
toward the midline of the body
- referring to the back of the body or the back of the hand or foot
- -a synonym for the posterior
referring to the front of the body
- a synonym for anterior
the back of the body
the front of the body
V-fib or ventricular fribulation
when the hearts electrical impulses are disorganized preventing the heart muscle from contracting normally
What does DCAP- BTLS stand for?
- d: deformities
- c; contusions
- a: abrasions
- p: punctures
- t: tenderness
- l: lacerations
- s: swelling
What does OPQRST stand for?
- O: onset
- P: provokes
- Q: quality
- R: radiation
- S: severity
- T: time
What is the most intervention for flail chest with respiratory compromise?
positive pressure venbtilation and oxygen
- bleeding into the pleural space.
- ~watch for signs & symptoms if shock.
- ~could cough up blood
- ~trachial deviation
what is stridor
high pitched sound generated from the partially obstructed air flow in the upper airway
what is a sucking chest wound
- (also an open pneumothorax)
- ~if open chest wound penetrates the pleural space, it can draw air during inhalation
- ~penetrating thoracic injusries should be covered with 3 sided occlusive (plastic) to prevent air from entering the chest cavity
- ~could also cause chest deviation
jaw thrust maneuver
a means of correctinng blockage of the airway by moving the jaw forward with tilting the head or neck.
* used when trauma or injury is suspected to open the airway without causing further injury
what are the 3 primary causes of shock
- 1: pump (heart) problems
- *myocardial infraction, cardiac trauma
- 2: Pipe (blood vessel) problems
- *anaphalaxis, spinal trauma, infection
- 3: Fluid (blood volume) problems
- *bleeding, vomiting, diarrhea
what are the types of shock?
- 1: Cardiogenic shock
- *the heart muscle cant pump effectively, causing a fluid back up, pulmonary edema, and hypotension
- 2: Anaphalaxic shock
- * severe reaction
- 3: neurogenic shock
- *spinal cord damage, vasodialation
- 4: septic shock
- *caused by severe infection
- 5: psychogenic shock
- * temp vasodialation that leads to syncope
- 6: hypovelemic shock
- * fluid problem
early signs and symptoms of shock
pale cool skin, weak peripheral pulse, increased respiration, thirst, delayed capillary refill,
late signs and symptoms of shock
falling blood pressure. irregular breathing, mottling or cyanosis, absent peripheral pulses
- the accumulation of air in the pleural space. this can compress the lung space, prevent gas exchange and lead to hypoxia.
- * lung sounds can be absent or diminished
- occurs when a portion of the thorax becomes separated from rest of thorax caused by fractures of at least 2 consecutive ribs in 2 or more places or sternum becomes separated from rib cage.
- (may exhibit paradoxical motion of separated portion of chest wall- occurs when portion of chest wall appears to move opposite direction of thoracic cage.
referring to the sole of the foot
referring to the palm of the hand
the trunk of the body; the body without the head or extremities
lying on back
required when patient must be moved quickly for treatment of an immediate threat to life. preformed with precautions for spinal injury
- farther away from the torso
- * elbow is distal to the shoulder.
gripping with as much hand surface as possible in contact with the object being lifted, all fingers bent at the same angle, hands at least 10 inches apart
the study of body structure
study of body functions
closer to the torso *the trunk of the body or body without head & extremities.
frontal or coronal planes
slicing body into 2 halves front to back