1. Exhalation
    Passive process which the incostal muscle and the diaphram relax causing the chest cavity to decrease in size and air to flow out of the lungs.
  2. Inhalation
    Active process which the intercostal muscle and the diaphram contract, expanding the size of the chest cavity and causing air to flow into the lungs
  3. Alveoli
    Microscopic sacs of the lungs where gas exchange witht he blood stream takes place
  4. Involuntary muscle
    muscle that responds automatically to brain signals but cannot be consciously controlled
  5. Plane
    the surface formed when slicing through a solid object
  6. voluntary muscle
    muscle that can be consciously controlled
  7. anatomical position
    standard reference position for the body in the study of anatomy.  In this position the body is standing erect facing the observer with arms down at sides and palms forward
  8. inferior
    away from the head; usually compared with another structure that is closer to the head.

    Ie: lips are inferior to the nose
  9. superior
    toward the head.

    ie: the chest is superior to the abdomen
  10. mid-axillary line
    • a line drawn vertically from the middle of the armpit to the ankle
    • - ears to ankles
  11. bilateral
    on both sides
  12. lateral
    the sides; away from the midline of the body
  13. midline
    line drawn down the center of the body; dividing it into right and left halves.
  14. medial
    toward the midline of the body
  15. dorsal
    • referring to the back of the body or the back of the hand or foot
    • -a synonym for the posterior
  16. ventral
    referring to the front of the body

    - a synonym for anterior
  17. posterior
    the back of the body
  18. anterior
    the front of the body
  19. V-fib or ventricular fribulation
    when the hearts electrical impulses are disorganized preventing the heart muscle from contracting normally
  20. What does DCAP- BTLS stand for?
    • d: deformities
    • c; contusions
    • a: abrasions
    • p: punctures
    • b:burns
    • t: tenderness
    • l: lacerations
    • s: swelling
  21. What does OPQRST stand for?
    • O: onset
    • P: provokes
    • Q: quality
    • R: radiation
    • S: severity
    • T: time
  22. What is the most intervention for flail chest with respiratory compromise?
    positive pressure venbtilation and oxygen
  23. hemothorax
    • bleeding into the pleural space. 
    • ~watch for signs & symptoms if shock.
    • ~could cough up blood
    • ~trachial deviation
  24. what is stridor
    high pitched sound generated from the partially obstructed air flow in the upper airway
  25. what is a sucking chest wound
    • (also an open pneumothorax)
    • ~if open chest wound penetrates the pleural space, it can draw air during inhalation
    • ~penetrating thoracic injusries should be covered with 3 sided occlusive (plastic) to prevent air from entering the chest cavity
    • ~could also cause chest deviation
  26. jaw thrust maneuver
    a means of correctinng blockage of the airway by moving the jaw forward with tilting the head or neck.

    * used when trauma or injury is suspected to open the airway without causing further injury
  27. what are the 3 primary causes of shock
    • 1: pump (heart) problems
    •    *myocardial infraction, cardiac trauma
    • 2: Pipe (blood vessel) problems
    •     *anaphalaxis, spinal trauma, infection
    • 3: Fluid (blood volume) problems
    •     *bleeding, vomiting, diarrhea
  28. what are the types of shock?
    • 1:  Cardiogenic shock
    •    *the heart muscle cant pump effectively, causing a  fluid back up, pulmonary edema, and hypotension
    • 2: Anaphalaxic shock
    •      * severe reaction
    • 3: neurogenic shock
    •     *spinal cord damage, vasodialation
    • 4: septic shock
    •     *caused by severe infection
    • 5: psychogenic shock
    •     * temp vasodialation that leads to syncope
    • 6: hypovelemic shock 
    •     * fluid problem
  29. early signs and symptoms of shock
    pale cool skin, weak peripheral pulse, increased respiration, thirst, delayed capillary refill,
  30. late signs and symptoms of shock
    falling blood pressure. irregular breathing, mottling or cyanosis, absent peripheral pulses
  31. Pneumothorax
    • the accumulation of air in the pleural space.  this can compress the lung space, prevent gas exchange and lead to hypoxia.
    • * lung sounds can be absent or diminished
  32. flail chest
    • occurs when a portion of the thorax becomes separated from rest of thorax caused by fractures of at least 2 consecutive ribs in 2 or more places or sternum becomes separated from rib cage.
    • (may exhibit paradoxical motion of separated portion of chest wall- occurs when portion of chest wall appears to move opposite direction of thoracic cage.
  33. Plantar
    referring to the sole of the foot
  34. Palmar
    referring to the palm of the hand
  35. torso
    the trunk of the body; the body without the head or extremities
  36. supine position
    lying on back
  37. urgent move
    required when patient must be moved quickly for treatment of an immediate threat to life.   preformed with precautions for spinal injury
  38. distal
    • farther away from the torso
    • * elbow is distal to the shoulder.
  39. power grip
    gripping with as much hand surface as possible in contact with the object being lifted, all fingers bent at the same angle, hands at least 10 inches apart
  40. Anatomy
    the study of body structure
  41. physiology
    study of body functions
  42. proximal
    closer to the torso  *the trunk of the body or body without head & extremities.
  43. frontal or coronal planes
    slicing body into 2 halves front to back
Card Set
emt b note cards 2012