Neuro final clinical notes

  1. Horner's syndrome:
    Etiology:  secondary to diseases causing nerve damage

    • s/s:  Drooping of your upper eyelid (ptosis) and slight elevation of the lower lid
    • Decreased pupil size in your affected eye (miosis)
    • Decreased or absent sweating on the affected side of your face (anhidrosis)
  2. Huntington’s Disease:
    • Etiology:  Congenital
    • S/S:  Involuntary jerking or writhing movements (chorea)Involuntary,
    • sustained contracture of muscles (dystonia)
    • Muscle rigidity
    • Slow, uncoordinated fine movements
    • Slow or abnormal eye movements
    • Impaired gait, posture and balance
    • Difficulty with the physical production of speech
    • Difficulty swallowing

    • Difficulty planning, organizing and prioritizing tasks
    • Inability to start a task or conversation
    • Lack of flexibility, or the tendency to get stuck on a thought, behavior or action (perseveration)
    • Lack of impulse control that can result in outbursts, acting without thinking and sexual promiscuity
    • Problems with spatial perception that can result in falls, clumsiness or accidents
    • Lack of awareness of one's own behaviors and abilities
    • Difficulty focusing on a task for long periods
    • Slowness in processing thoughts or "finding" words
    • Difficulty in learning new information
  3. Amnesia:
    • Etiology:  Brain damage secondary to hypoxia, trauma, nutritional deficits or other diseases
    • s/s:  Impaired ability to learn new information following the onset of amnesia (anterograde amnesia)
    • Impaired ability to recall past events and previously familiar information (retrograde amnesia)
    • False recollections (confabulation), either completely invented or made up of genuine memories misplaced in time
    • Neurological problems such as uncoordinated movements, tremors or seizures
    • Confusion or disorientation
  4. Bell's Palsy
    • Etiology:  Idiopathic
    • S/S:  Drooping angle of mouth, partial loss of taste/ salivation, total loss of lacrimation
  5. Multiple Sclerosis:
    • Etiology:  idiopathic
    • s/s:  Numbness or weakness in one or more limbs, which typically occurs on
    • one side of your body at a time or the bottom half of your body
    • Partial or complete loss of vision, usually in one eye at a time, often with pain during eye movement (optic neuritis)
    • Double vision or blurring of vision
    • Tingling or pain in parts of your body
    • Electric-shock sensations that occur with certain head movements
    • Tremor, lack of coordination or unsteady gait
    • Fatigue
    • Dizziness
  6. Acute bacterial meningitis
    • Etiology:  Bacterial infection (Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) or Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus))
    • s/s:  High fever
    • Severe headache that isn't easily confused with other types of headache
    • Stiff neck
    • Vomiting or nausea with headache
    • Confusion or difficulty concentrating — in the very young, this may appear as inability to maintain eye contact
    • Seizures
    • Sleepiness or difficulty waking upSensitivity to lightLack of interest in drinking and eating
    • Skin rash in some cases, such as in viral or meningococcal meningitis
  7. Guillain-barre syndrome:
    • Etiology:  idiopathic
    • s/s:  Prickling, "pins and needles" sensations in your fingers, toes or both
    • Weakness or tingling sensations in your legs that spread to your upper body
    • Unsteady walking or inability to walk
    • Difficulty with eye movement, facial movement, speaking, chewing or swallowing
    • Severe pain in your lower back
    • Difficulty with bladder control or intestinal functions
    • Rapid heart rate
    • Low or high blood pressure
    • Difficulty breathing
  8. Parkinson's Disease:
    etiology:  multifactorial; genetic, environmental

    s/s:  bradykinesia, tremor, hypertonia, impaired balance and posture, loss of automatic movements, speech and writing changes
  9. Autism:
    • etiology:  multifactorial; genetics environmental
    • s/s:  Fails to respond to his or her name
    • Has poor eye contact
    • Appears not to hear you at times
    • Resists cuddling and holding
    • Appears unaware of others' feelings
    • Seems to prefer playing alone — retreats into his or her "own world"
    • Speaks with an abnormal tone or rhythm — may use a singsong voice or robot-like speech
    • Can't start a conversation or keep one going
    • May repeat words or phrases verbatim, but doesn't understand how to use them
    • Performs repetitive movements, such as rocking, spinning or hand-flapping
    • Develops specific routines or rituals
    • Becomes disturbed at the slightest change in routines or rituals
    • Moves constantly
    • May be fascinated by parts of an object, such as the spinning wheels of a toy car
    • May be unusually sensitive to light, sound and touch and yet oblivious to pain
  10. Alzheimer's disease:
    • etiology:  idiopathic
    • s/s:  memory problems
    • disorientation and/or poor spatial skills
    • thinking and reasoning difficulties
    • changes in personality
    • difficulty making judgments or decisions
Card Set
Neuro final clinical notes
NFMC clinical notes