1. What are the components that make up the GIT on a cellular level?
    • Epithelium- stops things from the environment crossing and getting into the body
    • Lamina Propria- contains immune cells, fibroblasts, nerves, blood vessels
    • Circular muscle- works perpendicularly with longitudinal muscle to cause peristalsis
    • Longitudinal muscle- works perpendicularly with circular muscle to cause peristalsis
    • Mesenteric plexus- causes pulses of muscle contraction
  2. What are the functions of the GIT?
    • 1. Food digestion
    • 2. Vomiting
    • 3. Fluid absorption
    • 4. Immulogical functions eg oral tolerance
  3. How is gastric acid regulated in the stomach?
    • Cl- is pumped into the cell by antiport carrier
    • Cell becomes negatively charged
    • Cell transports the Cl- into the lumen via a symport carrier
    • K+ leaves the cell along with the Cl-
    • A proton pump exchanges K+ for H+ to get the K+ back into the cell
    • H+ and Cl- are in the lumen so HCL is produced.
  4. What activates gastric acid secretion?
    • Acetylcholine from a nerve and Gastrin from the blood act on histamine releasing cells, causing histamine to be released.
    • Histamine binds to a receptor in the parietal cell and activates the secretion of gastric acid.
  5. Name 2 gastric acid related diseases.
    • GERD (gastro eosophogeal reflux disease)
    • Peptic ulcer disease
  6. What are gastric acid diseases caused by?
    • Excess acid production
    • Weak sphincter
    • Decreased mucous
    • Infection
  7. What are the 4 pharmacological methods used to treat gastric acid related diseases?
    • 1. Cytoprotective
    • 2. Antacids
    • 3.. H2 receptor antagonists
    • 4. Proton pump inhibitors
    • 5. Antibiotics
  8. How do Cytoprotective drugs work? Give an example.
    • Coat the surface of the stomach
    • Bismuth Chelate
  9. How do Antacids work? Give an example.
    • Neutralise gastric acid
    • Magnesium Hydroxide
  10. How do H2 receptor antagonists work? Give an example.
    • Inhibit the histamine receptor
    • Cimetidine
  11. How do proton pump inhibitors work? Give an example.
    • Prevent HCL accumulation by blocking the pump.
    • Omeprazole
    • (Drug of choice, pH and cell specific)
  12. How do antibiotics work? Give an example.
    • Kill the H. pylori bacteria that infects the stomach and causes inflammation that leads to peptic ulcer formation.
    • Amoxillin
Card Set
Pharmacology of the GIT