1. The six categories of nutrients
    1. Carbohydrates:  Chemical substances in foods that consist of a single sugar molecule or multiples of sugar molecules in various forms.  Sugar and fruit, starchy vegetables, and whole grain products are good dietary sources.

    2.  Proteins:  Chemical substances in foods that are made up of chains of amino acids.  Animal products and dried beans are examples of protein sources.

    3.  Fats (Lipids):  Components of food that are soluble in fat but not in water.  They are more properly referred to as "lipids."  Most fats are composed of glycerol attached to three fatty acids.  Oil, butter, sausage, and avocado are examples of rich sources of dietary fats.

    4.  Vitamins:  Fourteen specific chemical substances that perform specific functions in the body.  Vitamins are present in many foods and are essential components of the diet.  Vegetables, fruits, and grains are good sources of vitamins.

    5.  Minerals:  In the context of nutrition, minerals consist of 15 elements found in foods that perform particular functions in the body.  Milk, dark, leafy vegetables, and meat are good sources of minerals.

    6.  Water:  An essential component of the diet provided by food and fluid.
  2. 10 Principles of Human Nutrition
    1:  Food is a basic need of humans.

    2:  Foods provide energy (calories), nutrients, and other substances needed for growth and health.

    3:  Health problems related to nutrition originate within cells.

    4:  Poor nutrition can result from both inadequate and excessive levels of nutrient intake.

    5:  Humans have adaptive mechanisms for managing fluctuations in food intake.

    6:  Malnutrition can result from poor diets and from disease states, genetic factors, or combinations of these causes.

    7:  Some groups of people are at higher risk of becoming inadequately nourished than others.

    8:  Poor nutrition can influence the development of certain chronic diseases.

    9:  Adequacy, variety, and balance are key characteristics of a healthy diet.

    10:  There are no "good" or "bad" foods.
  3. Water-Soluble Vitamins
    Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)

    • B-complex vitamins
    • - Thiamin (B1)
    • - Riboflavin (B2)
    • - Niacin (B3)
    • - Vitamin B6
    • - Folate
    • - Vitamin B12
    • - Biotin
    • - Pantothenic acid
    • - Choline
  4. Fat-Soluble Vitamins
    Vitamin A (retinol, veta-carotene)

    Vitamin D (1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol)

    Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol)

    Vitamin K
  5. Health = Nutrients / Calories
    An equation to remember especially for calorie counters that are not focussed on nutritious foods.
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