Davies--Evaluation of the Pulmonic Valve

  1. The most superior and lateral cardiac valve is the:

  2. M-mode recordings of the pulmonic valve normally show which of the pulmonary leaflets?


    other leaflets are usually not at the correct angle to the transducer
  3. The pulmonic valve may not be visualized in which 2D echo view?

    subcostal short-axis
    Apical 4C
    apical 4C

    apical plane does not usually include the pulmonic valve
  4. Pulmonic regurgitation may occur in

    bacterial endocarditis
    pulmonary hypertension
    after a pulmonary valvotomy
    all of the above
    all of the above
  5. True/False:  Characteristic findings on the 2D echo of the pulmonic valve in pulmonary stenosis include

    leaflets tips that remain centrally located in systole
    doming of the leaflets in systole
    eversion of the leaflets in diastole
    thickening of the leaflets
    T, T, F, T

    2D echo finding in PS are the same as for other stenotic valves, i.e doming leaflets, thickening of the structures, and leaflets tips that remain centrally positioned in systole. Eversion of the leaflets is seen in regurgitant lesions
  6. True/False:  The right ventricular outflow tract can be divided into the:

    midvalvular level
    infundibular level
    valvular level
    supravalvular level
    F, T, T, T

    RVOT is described in terms of 3 levels, infundibular(subvalvular), valvular and supravalvular
  7. True/False:  To differentiate significant pulmonary insufficiency from "normal" pulmonary insufficiency, one should look for

    disturbed flow distal to the valve
    associated signs of pulmonary hypertension
    diffuse distribution of regurgitation
    increased intensity of the CW doppler waveform
    F, T, T, T

    disturbed flow would be proximal to the valve, not distal. Other answers are ture signs of PHTN:diffuse disturbed signal proximal to the valve and an increased intensity of the CW Doppler waveform
  8. True/False:  Acquired pulmonary regurgittion may be secondary to

    pulmonary hypertension
    pacemaker wire
    bacterial endocarditis
    pulmonary valulotomy
    T, F, T, T

    pacemaker wire causes tricuspid regurgitation, not pulmonary regurgitaton. The other 3 choices all cause pulmonary regurgitation
  9. True/False:  The pulmonic doppler flow pattern in pulmonary insufficiency seconday to pulmonary hypertension shows:

    high-velocity disturbed flow throughtout diastole
    short acceleration time
    high velocity disturbed flow throughtout systole
    a decreased in flow in midstystole
    T, T, F, T

    high velocity disturbance of flow occurs in diastole, not systole, also acceleration is shortened. The formula 80-(AT *.5) can be used to predict PHTN. The decreased inflow in mid-systole corresponds to the notch seen on the M mode
  10. Characterstic findings on the M-mode examination of the pulmonic valve in patients with pulmonary stenosis include:

    an exaggerated A wave
    absent A wave
    notching (early closure)
    an exaggerated A wave

    exaggerated A wave, not absent is consistent with pulmonary stenosis. Absent A wave, is consistent with PTHN. Notching is also associated with PHTN. Doming occurs on the 2D examination, not on M -mode
  11. In comparison with normal flow-velocity acceleration time in the arotic valve, acceleration in the pulmonic valve is normally:

    the same
    not consistent

    normal pulmonary valve flow velocity accelaration time is slower than aortic valve flow velocity accleartion time
  12. True/False:  Pulmonary regurgitation, which can cause right ventricular volume overload, maybe manisfested by

    dilatation of the right ventricle
    abnormal septal motion
    flutter of the tricuspid valve leaflet
    dilatation of the right atrium
    T, T, T, F

    PR may cause a dilated RV, not dilatation of the RA. It may also cause flutter of the TV just as the AR may cause MV flutter. Finally the septal motion can become abnormal if RVVO occurs.
  13. True/False:  The following are seen the pulmonary hypertension

    midsystolic notching of the A wave
    nonvariation in A wave amplitude
    absence of the A wave
    absence of the P wave
    T, T, T, F
Card Set
Davies--Evaluation of the Pulmonic Valve