1. Does C# support multiple-inheritance?
  2. Who is a protected class-level variable available to?
    It is available to any sub-class (a class inheriting this class).
  3. Are private class-level variables inherited?
    Yes, but they are not accessible. Although they are not visible or accessible via the class interface, they are inherited.
  4. Describe the accessibility modifier “protected internal”.
    It is available to classes that are within the same assembly and derived from the specified base class.
  5. What’s the top .NET class that everything is derived from?
  6. What does the term immutable mean?
    The data value may not be changed. Note: The variable value may be changed, but the original immutable data value was discarded and a new data value was created in memory.
  7. What’s the difference between System.String and System.Text.StringBuilder classes?
    System.String is immutable. System.StringBuilder was designed with the purpose of having a mutable string where a variety of operations can be performed.
  8. What’s the advantage of using System.Text.StringBuilder over System.String?
    • StringBuilder is more efficient in cases where there is a large amount of string manipulation. Strings are immutable, so each time a string is changed, a new instance in memory is created.
    • 9 . Can you store multiple data types in System.Array?
  9. No.
    10 . What’s the difference between the System.Array.CopyTo() and System.Array.Clone()?
  10. The Clone() method returns a new array (a shallow copy) object containing all the elements in the original array. The CopyTo() method copies the elements into another existing array. Both perform a shallow copy. A shallow copy means the contents (each array element) contains references to the same object as the elements in the original array. A deep copy (which neither of these methods performs) would create a new instance of each element's object, resulting in a different, yet identacle object.
  11. 11 . How can you sort the elements of the array in descending order?
  12. By calling Sort() and then Reverse() methods.
    12 . What’s the .NET collection class that allows an element to be accessed using a unique key?
  13. HashTable.
    13 . Will the finally block get executed if an exception has not occurred?­
  14. Yes.
    14 . What’s the C# syntax to catch any possible exception?
  15. A catch block that catches the exception of type System.Exception. You can also omit the parameter data type in this case and just write catch {}.
    15 . Can multiple catch blocks be executed for a single try statement?
  16. No. Once the proper catch block processed, control is transferred to the finally block (if there are any).
    16 . Explain the three services model commonly know as a three-tier application.
  17. Presentation (UI), Business (logic and underlying code) and Data (from storage or other sources).
  18. Class Questions
    17 . What is the syntax to inherit from a class in C#?
  19. Place a colon and then the name of the base class.
    • Example: class MyNewClass : MyBaseClass
    • 18 . Can you prevent your class from being inherited by another class?
  20. Yes. The keyword “sealed” will prevent the class from being inherited.
    19 . Can you allow a class to be inherited, but prevent the method from being over-ridden?
  21. Yes. Just leave the class public and make the method sealed.
    20 . What’s an abstract class?
  22. A class that cannot be instantiated. An abstract class is a class that must be inherited and have the methods overridden. An abstract class is essentially a blueprint for a class without any implementation.
    21 . When do you absolutely have to declare a class as abstract?
  23. 1. When the class itself is inherited from an abstract class, but not all base abstract methods have been overridden.
    • 2. When at least one of the methods in the class is abstract.
    • 22 . What is an interface class?
  24. Interfaces, like classes, define a set of properties, methods, and events. But unlike classes, interfaces do not provide implementation. They are implemented by classes, and defined as separate entities from classes.
    23 . Why can’t you specify the accessibility modifier for methods inside the interface?
  25. They all must be public, and are therefore public by default.
    24 . Can you inherit multiple interfaces?
  26. Yes. .NET does support multiple interfaces.
    25 . What happens if you inherit multiple interfaces and they have conflicting method names?
  27. It’s up to you to implement the method inside your own class, so implementation is left entirely up to you. This might cause a problem on a higher-level scale if similarly named methods from different interfaces expect different data, but as far as compiler cares you’re okay.
    • To Do: Investigate
    • 26 . What’s the difference between an interface and abstract class?
  28. In an interface class, all methods are abstract - there is no implementation. In an abstract class some methods can be concrete. In an interface class, no accessibility modifiers are allowed. An abstract class may have accessibility modifiers.
    27 . What is the difference between a Struct and a Class?
  29. Structs are value-type variables and are thus saved on the stack, additional overhead but faster retrieval. Another difference is that structs cannot inherit.
  30. Method and Property Questions
    28 . What’s the implicit name of the parameter that gets passed into the set method/property of a class?
  31. Value. The data type of the value parameter is defined by whatever data type the property is declared as.
    29 . What does the keyword “virtual” declare for a method or property?
  32. The method or property can be overridden.
    30 . How is method overriding different from method overloading?
  33. When overriding a method, you change the behavior of the method for the derived class. Overloading a method simply involves having another method with the same name within the class.
  34. 31 . Can you declare an override method to be static if the original method is not static?
  35. No. The signature of the virtual method must remain the same. (Note: Only the keyword virtual is changed to keyword override)
    32 . What are the different ways a method can be overloaded?
  36. Different parameter data types, different number of parameters, different order of parameters.
    33 . If a base class has a number of overloaded constructors, and an inheriting class has a number of overloaded constructors; can you enforce a call from an inherited constructor to a specific base constructor?
  37. Yes, just place a colon, and then keyword base (parameter list to invoke the appropriate constructor) in the overloaded constructor definition inside the inherited class.
  38. Events and Delegates
    34 . What’s a delegate?
  39. A delegate object encapsulates a reference to a method.
    35 . What’s a multicast delegate?
  40. A delegate that has multiple handlers assigned to it. Each assigned handler (method) is called.
    36 . Is XML case-sensitive?
  41. Yes.
    37 . What’s the difference between // comments, /* */ comments and /// comments?
  42. Single-line comments, multi-line comments, and XML documentation comments.
    38 . How do you generate documentation from the C# file commented properly with a command-line compiler?
  43. Compile it with the /doc switch.
  44. Debugging and Testing Questions
    39 . What debugging tools come with the .NET SDK?
  45. 1. CorDBG – command-line debugger. To use CorDbg, you must compile the original C# file using the /debug switch.
    • 2. DbgCLR – graphic debugger. Visual Studio .NET
    • uses the DbgCLR.
    • 40 . What does assert() method do?
  46. In debug compilation, assert takes in a Boolean condition as a parameter, and shows the error dialog if the condition is false. The program proceeds without any interruption if the condition is true.
    41 . What’s the difference between the Debug class and Trace class?
  47. Documentation looks the same. Use Debug class for debug builds, use Trace class for both debug and release builds.
    42 . Why are there five tracing levels in System.Diagnostics.TraceSwitcher?
  48. The tracing dumps can be quite verbose. For applications that are constantly running you run the risk of overloading the machine and the hard drive
    • . Five levels range from None to Verbose, allowing you to fine-tune the tracing activities.
    • 43 . Where is the output of TextWriterTraceListener redirected?
  49. To the Console or a text file depending on the parameter passed to the constructor.
    • 44 . How do you debug an ASP.NET
    • Web application?
  50. Attach the aspnet_wp.exe process to the DbgClr debugger.
    • 45 . What are three test cases you should go through in unit testing?
    • 1. Positive test cases (correct data, correct output).
    • 2. Negative test cases (broken or missing data, proper handling).
    • 3. Exception test cases (exceptions are thrown and caught properly).
    • 46 . Can you change the value of a variable while debugging a C# application?
  51. Yes. If you are debugging via Visual Studio.NET, just go to Immediate window.
  52. ADO.NET and Database
    • Questions
    • 47 . What is the role of the DataReader class in ADO.NET connections?
  53. It returns a read-only, forward-only rowset from the data source. A DataReader provides fast access when a forward-only sequential read is needed.
    48 . What are advantages and disadvantages of Microsoft-provided data provider classes in ADO.NET?
  54. SQL ServerNET data provider is high-speed and robust, but requires SQL Server license purchased from Microsoft. OLE-DB.NET is universal for accessing other sources, like Oracle, DB2, Microsoft Access and Informix. OLE-DB.NET is a .NET layer on top of the OLE layer, so it’s not as fastest and efficient as SqlServer.NET.
    49 . What is the wildcard character in SQL?
  55. Let’s say you want to query database with LIKE for all employees whose name starts with La. The wildcard character is %, the proper query with LIKE would involve ‘La%’.
    50 . Explain ACID rule of thumb for transactions.
  56. A transaction must be:
    • 1. Atomic - it is one unit of work and does not dependent on previous and following transactions.
    • 2. Consistent - data is either committed or roll back, no “in-between” case where something has been updated and something hasn’t.
    • 3. Isolated - no transaction sees the intermediate results of the current transaction).
    • 4. Durable - the values persist if the data had been committed even if the system crashes right after.
  57. 51 . What connections does Microsoft SQL Server support?
  58. Windows Authentication (via Active Directory) and SQL Server authentication (via Microsoft SQL Server username and password).
    52 . Between Windows Authentication and SQL Server Authentication, which one is trusted and which one is untrusted?
  59. Windows Authentication is trusted because the username and password are checked with the Active Directory, the SQL Server authentication is untrusted, since SQL Server is the only verifier participating in the transaction.
    53 . What does the Initial Catalog parameter define in the connection string?
  60. The database name to connect to.
    54 . What is a pre-requisite for connection pooling?
  61. Multiple processes must agree that they will share the same connection, where every parameter is the same, including the security settings. The connection string must be identical.
  62. Assembly Questions
    55 . How is the DLL Hell problem solved in .NET?
  63. Assembly versioning allows the application to specify not only the library it needs to run (which was available under Win32), but also the version of the assembly.
    56 . What are the ways to deploy an assembly?
  64. An MSI installer, a CAB archive, and XCOPY command.
    57 . What is a satellite assembly?
  65. When you write a multilingual or multi-cultural application in .NET, and want to distribute the core application separately from the localized modules, the localized assemblies that modify the core application are called satellite assemblies.
    58 . What namespaces are necessary to create a localized application?
  66. System.Globalization and System.Resources.
    59 . What is the smallest unit of execution in .NET?
  67. An Assembly.
    60 . When should you call the garbage collector in .NET?
  68. As a good rule, you should not call the garbage collector. However, you could call the garbage collector when you are done using a large object (or set of objects) to force the garbage collector to dispose of those very large objects from memory. However, this is usually not a good practice.
    61 . How do you convert a value-type to a reference-type?
  69. Use Boxing.
    62 . What happens in memory when you Box and Unbox a value-type?
  70. Boxing converts a value-type to a reference-type, thus storing the object on the heap. Unboxing converts a reference-type to a value-type, thus storing the value on the stack.
  71. 31 . Which control would you use if you needed to make sure the values in two different controls matched?
    CompareValidator control.

    • 32 . How many classes can a single .NET DLL contain?
    • It can contain many classes.
  72. Web Service Questions
    • 33 . What is the transport protocol you use to call a Web service?
    • SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) is the preferred protocol.

    • 34 . What does Error! Hyperlink reference not valid. stand for?
    • Web Services Description Language.

    • 35 . Where on the Error! Hyperlink reference not valid. would you look for Web services?

    • 36 . True or False: To test a Web service you must create a Windows application or Web application to consume this service?
    • False, the web service comes with a test page and it provides HTTP-GET method to test.

    • 37 . Can you give an example of when it would be appropriate to use a web service as opposed to a non-serviced .NET component
    • Webservice is one of main component in Error! Hyperlink reference not valid.. You could use webservices when your clients and servers are running on different networks and also different platforms. This provides a loosely coupled system. And also if the client is behind the firewall it would be easy to use webserivce since it runs on port 80 (by default) instead of having some thing else in SOA apps
  73. State Management Questions
    • 38 . What is ViewState?
    • ViewState allows the state of objects (serializable) to be stored in a hidden field on the page. ViewState is transported to the client and back to the server, and is not stored on the server or any other external source. ViewState is used the retain the state of server-side objects between postabacks.

    • 39 . What is the lifespan for items stored in ViewState?
    • Item stored in ViewState exist for the life of the current page. This includes postbacks (to the same page).

    • 40 . What does the "EnableViewState" property do? Why would I want it on or off?
    • It allows the page to save the users input on a form across postbacks. It saves the server-side values for a given control into ViewState, which is stored as a hidden value on the page before sending the page to the clients browser. When the page is posted back to the server the server control is recreated with the state stored in viewstate.

    • 41 . What are the different types of Session state management options available with ASP.NET?
    • ASP.NET provides In-Process and Out-of-Process state management. In-Process stores the session in memory on the web server. This requires the a "sticky-server" (or no Error! Hyperlink reference not valid.) so that the user is always reconnected to the same web server. Out-of-Process Session state management stores data in an external data source. The external data source may be either a SQL Server or a State Server service. Out-of-Process state management requires that all objects stored in session are serializable.

    • 42 . Let's say I have an existing application written using Visual Studio 6 (VB 6, InterDev 6) and this application utilizes Windows 2000 COM+ transaction services. How would you approach migrating this application to .NET
    • You have to use System.EnterpriseServices namespace and also COMInterop the existing application

    • 43 . Can you give an example of what might be best suited to place in the Application_Start and Session_Start subroutines?
    • In the Application_Start event you could store the data, which is used throughout the life time of an application for example application name, where as Session_Start could be used to store the information, which is required for that session of the application say for example user id or user name.

    • 44 . If I'm developing an application that must accomodate multiple security levels though secure login and my ASP.NET web appplication is spanned across three web-servers (using round-robbin load balancing) what would be the best approach to maintain login-in state for the users?
    • Use the state server or store the state in the database. This can be easily done through simple setting change in the web.config.
    • mode="InProc"
    • stateConnectionString="tcpip="
    • sqlConnectionString="data source=;user id=sa;password="
    • cookieless="false"
    • timeout="30"
    • />
    • in the above one instead of mode="InProc", you specifiy stateserver or sqlserver.

    • 45 . What are ASP.NET Web Forms? How is this Error! Hyperlink reference not valid. different than what is available though ASP (1.0-3.0)?
    • ASP.NET webforms are analogous to Windows Forms which are available to most VB developers. A webform is essentially a core container in a Page. An empty webform is nothing but a HTML Form tag(control) running at server and posting form to itself by default, but you could change it to post it to something else. This is a container, and you could place the web controls, user controls and HTML Controls in that one and interact with user on a postback basis.

    • 46 . How does VB.NET/C# achieve polymorphism?
    • Polymorphism is achieved through virtual, overloaded, overridden methods in C# and VB.NET

    47 . Describe session handling in a webform, how does it work and what are the its limits
  74. Sometimes it is necessary to carry a particular session data across pages.
    • And HTTP is a stateless protocol. In order to maintain state between
    • page calls, we could use cookies, hidden form fields etc. One of them is
    • using sessions. each sessions are maintain a unique key on the server and
    • serialize the data on it. Actually it is a hashtable and stores data on key/value
    • pair of combination. You could set a session using Session Object and retrieve the same data/state
    • by passing the key.
    • //Set
    • Session["abc"] = "Session Value";
    • // Get
    • string abc = Session["abc"].ToString();
    • The downside of sessions is scalability. Say your application gets more and more hits
    • and you though instead of one webserver handling it, have it in a webfarm (multiple web
    • servers working under one domain). You cannot transfer the session so easily across multiple
    • webservers. Reason is like I said, it physically serializes the state data to webserver hard disk.
    • .NET proposes a new way to handle this using a stateserver (actually a trimmed down sql server)
    • storing the web session data in a factory configured database schema or using Database with your own
    • schema defined to handle the sessions.

    • 48 . How would you get ASP.NET running in Apache web servers - why would you even do this?
    • You need to create a CLRHost, which hosts the CLR (ASP.NET) on top of Apache.
    • Since Apache is #1 webserver used by many companies, this would allow more number of web site owners
    • to take advantage of ASP.NET and its richness.

    49 . Whats MSIL, and why should my developers need an appreciation of it if at all?
  75. MSIL is Microsoft Intermediate (Intermediary) Language. It is Microsoft's implementation of CIL (standard recognized
    by ECMA and ISO) as part of CLI and C# Standardization.
  76. .NET supports more than 21 language (I think 24 now). They compile to IL first and then this IL would get JITted to Native
    • code at runtime. Learning IL is advantageous in many terms. The important one is sometimes you need to optimize your
    • code, so you could disassemble your compile assembly using ILDASM and tweak your code and re assemble it using ILASM.

    • 50 . In what order do the events of an ASPX page execute. As a developer is it important to undertsand these events?
    • This is the order of Page events
    • i. Page_Init
    • ii.Page_LoadViewState
    • iii. Page_LoadPostData
    • iv. Page_Load
    • v. Page_RaisePostDataChanged
    • vi. Page_RaisePostBackEvent
    • vii. Page_PreRender
    • viii. Page_SaveViewState
    • ix. Page_Render
    • x. Page_Dispose
    • xii. Page_Error (this is caused whenever there is an exception at the page level).
  77. Out of all the Page_Load is the one where your code gets loaded and your magic should be written. page_init
    occurs only once, i.e. when the page is initially created.
  78. 63 . What property do you have to set to tell the grid which page to go to when using the Pager object?
    CurrentPageIndex. You need to set this one with the DataGridPageChangedEventArgs' NewPageIndex.

    • 64 . Which control would you use if you needed to make sure the values in two different controls matched?
    • Use CompareValidator

    • 65 . True or False: To test a Web service you must create a windows application or Web application to consume this service?
    • False. The webservice comes with a test page and it provides HTTP-GET method to test.
    • And if the web service turned off HTTP-GET for security purposes then you need to create
    • a web application or windows app as a client to this to test.

    • 66 . How many classes can a single .NET DLL contain?
    • many is correct. Yes an assembly can contain one or more classes and an assembly can
    • be contained in one dll or could spread across multiple dlls. too. Take System.dll, it is
    • collections of so many classes.

    • 67 . Why would you use an array vs linked-list ?
    • Linked List:
    • ? They allow a new element to be inserted or deleted at any position in a constant number of operations (changing some references) O(1).
    • ? Easy to delete a node (as it only has to rearrange the links to the different nodes)., O(1).
    • ? To find the nth node, will need to recurse through the list till it finds [linked lists allow only sequential access to elements. ], O(n)
  79. Array
    • ? Insertion or deletion of element at any position require a linear (O(n)) number of operations.
    • ? Poor at deleting nodes (or elements) as it cannot remove one node without individually shifting all the elements up the list by one., O(n)
    • ? Poor at inserting as an array will eventually either fill up or need to be resized, an expensive operation that may not even be possible if memory is fragmented. Similarly, an array from which many elements are removed may become wastefully empty or need to be made smaller, O(n)
  80. ? easy to find the nth element in the array by directly referencing them by their position in the array.[ arrays allow random access ] , O(1)
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