1. A growing number of schools of philosophy taught new ways of thinking, some of which opposed the growth of the priestly ____ religion. Into this world came ______, who would come to be known as the Buddha or the "___________".
    Vedic. Siddhartha Gautama. The Awakened one.
  2. There is no single _____ of the buddha. 
    authoritative biography
  3. When a sage inspected Gautama as a child, he saw special marks on his body indicating that he would be an _____ person.
  4. Siddhartha grew up in luxury, _____, at an early age.
  5. Siddhartha had a ____
  6. Siddhartha was ____ and ____ as a warrior to prepare for eventually taking over his father's role.
    educated and trained
  7. Siddhartha disobeyed his father's command not to leave the royal ground. Visiting a nearby town, he soon witness the ____ of ____. He saw and was moved by what are called the ________. He came across an old man, crooked and toothless, a sick man wasted by disease and a corpse being taken for creamation.
    suffering of ordinarty life. Four passing sights. 
  8. Legend tells how he took a last look at his sleeping family and attendants and rode to the edge of the palace grounds, where he have his horse to his servant, removed his jewels and cut off his long black hair. Putting on simple clothing, he went into the world with nothing but questions. This event is called ______
    Great Going Forth
  9. It is common in Indian spirituality to seek a ____, and Siddhartha did just that.
  10. In the compony of five other ______, he set out to find the answers he needed. To rid himself of distractions and to purify himself spirtually, Siddhartha also practice _____.
    nomadic "seekers". Great Austerity.
  11. His five companions, having disocvered Siddhartha's ____ of ____ abandoned him.
    rejection of austerities
  12. Siddhartha decided to adopt a path of moderation, a middle way between ____ and ___. He went to another tree, now called the _____, and sat facing the east resolving to remaint here in ____ until he had the understanding he needed. 
    self indulgence and asceticism. Bodhi Tree. Meditation.
  13. Every version talks about Buddah's struggle with ___, ___, ___ and ____.
    thirst, hunger, doubt and weakness
  14. At dawn, Siddhartha reached a state of profound understanding called his _____ or _____. He saw suffering, aging and death in a new way recognizing them as inevitable part of life but also seeing the possibility of release.
    Awakening or Enlightment
  15. Siddhartha arose and said that he was now a person who had woken up. Fromt his came his new name the _____, the _____, taken from a sanskrit word meaning "_____"
    buddha, awakened one, "to wake up"
  16. He explained his awakening to his five former companions at a deer park at Sarnath, near Benares. Although they had parted with him earlier for abandoing his ascetic habits they reconciled with him and became his first _____
  17. When he was 80, legend says the Buddha ate food offfered by a well meaning blacksmith named ____, but the food was spoiled and the Buddha became terribly sick. Sensing that he was dying he called his _____.  His final instruction was to trust your own ____ and use self-control to reach _____ and _____. He turned on his ____ and died.
    Chunda, disicples, insights, perfection and inner peace, right side.
  18. One of the most important languages through which Buddhist teachings have been passed down is _____, which is similiar to ______.
    Pali. Sanskrit
  19. At the core of what is generally regarded as basic buddihms are the three jeweles, that is the ____, _____ and ____.
    buddha, dharma, and the sangha.
  20. the buddha is thought of as an ______ whom other human beings should ____. The image of him, seated in ____, is a constant model of ____ and ____. He is usually not thought of as being ead but instead as existing in a ______ dimension beyond the world.
    ideal human being, imitate. meditation. self-control and mindfulness. timeless.
  21. the _____ means the sum total of buddhis teachings about how to view the world and how to live properly.
  22. the ____ is the community of monks and nuns.
  23. Buddha concentrated on what was useful. He refused to talk about anything else- a benign neglect that has been called his _____. He speculated that unanswerable questions was like a man who had been wounded by an ____ but refused to pull it out until he knew everything about the ____ and the person who shot it. The wounded man would die before he could get all the information he needed.
    Noble Silence. Arrow. Arrow
  24. The buddha wished to concentrate on two questions:
    How can we minimize suffering both our own and that of others

    How can we attain inner peace
  25. Reality manifests three characteristics, ____, ____, and ____. 
    constant change, a lack of permanent identity, existence of suffering.
  26. Buddha taught, the wise person expect ____, ____ and even ____.
    change, accepts it, savors it
  27. Buddha urged people to abandon ____ and a fixation on ______. He denied the existence of the _______ of anything.
    egotism, material objects. Permanent identity.
  28. Each person and each thing is not only changing but is made up of parts that are also constantly changing, a concept refereed to as _____" in the case of people it is called "_______" or "______"
    no permanent identity, no permanent soul, no self
  29. The third characteristic of reality known as the dukkha is usually translated as "_____" or "_____" but it also means "______" or "_____"
    suffering, sorrow, dissatisfaction, disease
  30. Dukkha encompasses the whole range from horrible _____ to every day _____
    suffering, frustration
  31. The buddha concluded that to live means inescapable to experience _____ and _____
    sorrow and disatisfaction
  32. To aid in their memorization, some buddhist teachings were groupined into ____ and ____
    fours and eights
  33. The four noble truths are a linked chain about truths about life (1)____(2)____(3)________(4)__________
    • suffering exists
    • it has a cause
    • it has an end 
    • there is a way to attain release from suffering
  34. There is a way to attain release from suffering, namely by following the ________
    noble eightfold path
  35. The buddha saw suffering comes from ________
    wanting what we cannot have and from never being satisfied with what we do. 
  36. the _____ and ________ of monks and nuns symbolize their radical detachment from worldy concerns.
    shaven head, special clothing
  37. ____ is a setp to inner peace.
  38. the ultimate goal of buddhism is ____
  39. the term ___ suggests many things, end of suffering, inner peace and liberation from the limitations of the world. 
  40. the term nirvana seems to mean "____" or "____" suggesting that the fires of desire have been extinquished. 
    Blown out or cool
  41. upon attaining ____, the individual has self-control and is no longer driven from inside by raging emotional forces or from outside by the unpredicatable events of life.
  42. nirvan is believed to end ___ and ____ after the present life. To reach nirvana, buddhism recommends following the ______.
    karma, rebirth. Noble eightfold path.
  43. the noble eightfold path describes three main goals :
    • to face life objectively
    • to live kindly
    • cultivate inner peace
  44. The eight steps, although can be done in any order are ___, ___, ___, ___, ___, ___, ____, and ____
    • right understanding
    • right intention
    • right speech
    • right action
    • right work
    • right effort
    • right meditation
    • right contemplation
  45. For buddhism ____ is fundamental. It holds that to cause suffering to any being is cruel and unnesessary. _____ discourages causing not only physical pain but also physchologica hurt or the exploitation of another.
    ahimsa, ahimsa
  46. Ahimsa reccommends when possible to _____ and _____
    become a vegetarian or semi vegetarian and to not be involved in jobs or sports to hurt others such as football, hunting, buther, solder etc.
  47. the everyday world of change is called _____ a term that suggests decay and pain. Liberation from it however is attained in _____
    samsara, nirvana
  48. ____ is thought of as existence beyond limitation
  49. Of all the conservative schools one survived it is called the ______. Its name is often used today to refer to the entire ______ movement.
    theravada, conservative
  50. The thervada school takes its name from its goal of passing on the buddha's teachings unchanged. it means "_____". 
    the way of the elders
  51. The heart of Theravada Buddhism is its community of _____. Although it does not accept that laypeople can attain nirvana, the life of the ____ offers a surer path. The notion is enshrined in the ideal of the _____, which means a person who has reached nirvana.
    monk, monk, arhat
  52. Theravada monks must beg daily for their ____. When they go out on their begging rounds early morning, people who wish to donate to them offer them ___ and ___. Donors believe they are receiving beneficial ____ from their acts of generoisty.
    food, rice and vegetables. Karma
  53. At Buddhist festivals monks are given new ___ and ___ of essential items such as ___, ___, ___ and ____. 
    robes, pails. soap, toothpaste, razors canned goods.
  54. Donations are especially given at the _______ festival and at the beginning and end of the rainy season which is often called the "_____". During this time monks stay in their _____ for study.
    new year, buddhist lent, monastaries
  55. Most weddings, funerals and other family events are considered incomplete with out the presense of ____ who are expected to chant from the _____ to provide merit for the family members.
    monks, sutras
  56. The statues of monks recieve signs of hopeful ____ in the form of ___, ____ and ____
    veneration, flowers, water and incense
  57. in theravada buddhism not only is ____ performed for men who are planning to become monks for life but "_____" is also commonly performed. It lasts for an entire rainy season but may also be done for shorter p eriods. It is considered an effective way to "_____" for oneself and ones family. 
    ordination, temporary ordination, make merit
  58. _____ permeates society and everyday life in theravada buddhist cultures.
  59. Buddhists have been unable to read, instead they learned thier religious beliefs and practices from _____, ___, and ____
    hearing sermons, seeing temple paintings, listening to older family members
  60. ____ have been influental, the most fames are the hundreds of ______ tales.
    folk tales, jataka tales
  61. the _____ tales are about human beings and animals and each tale teaches a morallesson about a particular virture such as friendship, truthfulness, genorisity or moderation. Typically the tale begins with the _____ telling the tale. The tale then ends with the ____ saying that in past life he was one of the animal or human figures int he story. 
    jataka tales, buddha, buddha
  62. the jataka tales are frequently the subject of __, ___ and ____ in ____.
    art, plays and dance in southeast asia
  63. the theravada collection of the buddha's teaching is called the ______. As a whole, the mass of material is called _____ or ____ which means "_____". The name comes from the fact that the writtings were divided according to their subject matter into three groups.
    pali canon. Tipitaka, tripitaka, three baskets
  64. The three collections of the Tripitaka or Pali cannon are ___, ___, and ____
    Vinaya, Sutra, Abhidharma
  65. the ____ collection outlines the procedural rules for monastic life. These include rules on begging, eating, relations with monks and non months and other disciples. 
  66. the secon collection comprises sayings of the buddha in the form of sermons or dialogues. This type of matterial is called ___.
  67. a third collection developed later, it is called the _____ meaning "the works that go beyond the elementary teachings". It systematized the doctrine presented more or less randomly in the sutras.
  68. Images of the Buddha did not appear in the earliest centures of buddhism. Instead artists used ___ to represent him. One was the _______ which derived from the ______ and represented all the basic buddhist teachings, the ____.
    symbols, eight-spoked wheel, Noble Eightfold Path, Dharma
  69. the umbrella often carried to protect an important person from hot sun, symbolized the _____.
    buddha's authority
  70. Common symboles include _____, ____ and ____.
    set of foot prints, lotus flower and empty throne
  71. The second great beanch of buddhism is called the ____ , a word that is usually trasnalted as "_____". It suggests a large ferryboat in which all types of people can be carried across a river and it hints at the broad scope of the mahayna vision, which can accomoadte a wide variety of people seeking enlightnemnt.
    mahayana, big vehicle
  72. The Mahayana Buddhism expanded to include ___, ____ and ____.
    non,onks, women and married
  73. in mahayana the ___ and ___ are viewed positively and there is a great opennes toward ___ and ___.
    human body, material realm. art and music
  74. In mahayana, ____ remained an important goal but the pairing of ___ and ____ was central to its teachings. 
    wisom, wisdom and compassion
  75. Compassion is an essential virtue and the preeminent expression of wisdom. The term for this compassions is ______ which can also be translated as "_____", "_____", or "_____"
    karuna, empathy,sympathy, kindness
  76. _____ implies that we all are part of the same ever changing universe. it means living out this ____ of the unity of the ____
    karuna. awareness, universe
  77. The ideal in mahayana buddhism is the person of deep compassion, the _____ or "_____". Because a ____ embodies compassion, it is often that that it will refuse to fully enter nirvana in order to be reborn on earth to help others. A person may even take the "_____" to be constantly reborn until all are enlightened
    bodhisattva, enlightenment being. bodhisattva, bodhisattva vow
  78. mahayana is open to anything that can lead to great spiritual awareness a concept known as "_____"
    skillfull means
  79. In Mahayan, the buddha nature can express itself in three ways, this is often called the ____ doctrine. The histrocial buddha who lived in india came to be considered the manifestation of a divine realy "_____". The sanskrit term for this is "_____"
    Trikaya, Cosmic Buddha Nature. Dharmakaya
  80. When we experience the mystery of the natural world, we experience the ____
  81. Siddhartha's Gautama's physical body, because it is considered an incertaion of this divine reality is called the _____ or "_____"
    nirmanakaya, transformation body
  82. Many Mahayana schools believe in more than one _____ of the ____
    transformation body of the buddha
  83. Both branches of buddhism believe that another histrocial buddha, the ___ will appear on earth int he future to inaugrate a _____. 
    maitreya, golden age
  84. Mahayana buddhism envisions many buddhas existing simultaenously each with his own spehere of influence called the "_____". Particualrly important is the bliss-body Buddha who created a buddha land int he western direction of the setting sun. There he recieves the dying who wish enlightenment after death. His name in india was ______.  Many devout buddhists hope to be reborn in his paradise. 
    Buddha land, Amitabha Buddha
  85. Their devotion to Amitabha Buddha has inspirted a great body of fine painting and sculpture that depics a large buddha seated on a ____, surrounded by _____ in pavilions sets in gardens full of _____.
    lotus flower, peaceful disicples, full of flowers
  86.  The most significant of the heavenly bodhisattvas has been ____, who looks down from a location above in order to give help. Her name in Chinese is _____ or "_____". SHe first appeared ine arly depictions as having both male and female characteristics but eventually became entirely feminine.
    Avalokiteshavara, Guanyin "hears cries"
  87. One mahayana doctrine asserts that all reality is ____ or "_____". 
    shunya, empty
  88. litterally shunyata may be trasnlated as "_____" or "_____"
    emptiness or zero-ness
  89. the notion of shunyata also suggests the experience that everything is a part of ____, that all people and things exist _____
    everything else, together
  90. the word tathata means "_____" or "_____" or "_____"
    thatness, thusness, suchness.
  91. ____ is a rich notion that invites each person's excperience and interpretation. It represents a view of experience that says that reality is revealed in each moment as we savor patterns, relationships and change.
  92. we may experience "_____" when two elements come together in an unexpected way
  93. tathata is a ___ that will never return in exactly the same way
    poetic moment
  94. The wonder that can be seen ine veryday life is what the term ____ suggests. We experience the "_____" of reality when we experience something and say to oursevles, "Yes that's it, that is the way things are"
    tathata, thatness
  95. the _____ become highly influential among monks, poets and artists. The _______ with its devotion to the Amithaba Buddha, became the primary form of devotion for lay people.
    school of mediation, pure land movement
  96. Whatever helps a person move to the next stage of awareness maybe religiously acceptable. THis is the notion of "_____" some people need images to look at and gods to pray to other people need a community od devoute friends and very few need only sielnce and emptiness.
    skillful means
  97. the _______ school created a devotinal form of buddhism that could be practiced by lay people as well as monks. In china, it can be traced back to the monk ____.
    Pure land, tan luan
  98. Daily ____ and ____ at the moment of death were tthought to ensure the believer's rebirth in the _____
    repetition and reciation, western paradise
  99. In Japan, the pure land movement spread by the monk ____ who was orginally a tendai monk at mount hiei. His movement became a separate sect called the ____ or "_____". 
    Tendai monk. Jodo Shu or pureland sect
  100. Pure Land Buddhism has inspired and continues to inspire the ___. In sculpture and painting the ___ is often shown at the center of a triad. 
    arts. Amida.
  101. ____ takes its name from the seventh step of the noble eightfold path dyhana or meditation
  102. Taking after the buddha, the memebrs of the chan movement in their desire for enlightment favored the technique of _____ just as Siddhartha Gautama had.
    seated mediation
  103. Chan Buddhism traditionally traces itself back to a buddhist monk named ____ who is said to have come to china from india or central asia and in china begain his mediation school. ____ is often shown sitting in meditation with ____, ____ and an ___. In paitnings, he faces a wall to indiciate his strong desire to block out anything that would distract him from mediation. 
    Bodhidharma, Bodhidharma, Swarthy Skin, Light beard and an earring
  104. It has been said that Bodhidharma mediated for so long that his legs camed ____, he is the emboidment of ___ and ____
    withered, patience and persistence
  105. Enlightenment can occur as a sudden awakening to one's true nature, like a flash of ligthening anywhere and at any time. The enlighment experience is called "_____" brings an awareness of the unity of oneself with the rest of the universe. 
  106. The most funadmental zen technique for reaching enlightenment is regular "_____" called ____. In zen monasteris it is normally done for several hours in the morning and evening.
    sitting mediation, zazen
  107. Zazen involves sitting in ____ with one's back ____ and ___, keeping the body ____ and taking ___ and ___ breaths.
    silence, straight and cented, still, deep and regular
  108. the _____ is another technique for attaining awareness. iys origin is uncertain but the name derives from the chinese gongan traslated as "_____". 
    koan, public discussion
  109. _____ is essential to zen training. In a zen monastery work in the ___ and ___ and the ___ and ___ of the monastery are techniques to combat the inadequacy of words to describe reality. 
    manual labor, garden and kitchen, repair and cleaning
  110. ____ demands pondering
  111. ______ is the buddha of the western paradise, a bliss-body buddha in mahayana
    amitabha buddha
  112. the ___ means "no self" it is the doctrine that there is no soul or permanent essense in people and things
  113. ____ means impermananc and constant change
  114. ____ in therava, is a person who has practice monastic disiciplines and reached nirvana, the ideal
  115. ____ means "enlightenment being" in mahayana a person of deep compassion, especially one who does not enter nirvana but is contstantly reborn to help others
  116. _____ is the totality of buddhist teaching
  117. _____  means sorrow or misery
  118. ____ is a popular bodhisattva of compassion in mahayana
  119. ____ means compassion or empathy
  120. ____ in chan and zen buddhism, is a questiont hat cannot be answered logically, a technique used to test consciousness and bring awakening
  121. ____ is a buddha (or bodhisattva) expected to appear on earth int he future
  122. ____ is the release from suffering and rebirth that brings innear peace
  123. ____ is constant rebirth and the attendant suffering; the everyday world of change
  124. ____ is the community of monks and nuns, lowercases it feres to an idnvidiaul in monastic community
  125. ____ is the mahayana notion of emptiness, meaning that the universe is empty of permanent reality
  126. ____  is a sacred text, especially one said ot record the words of the buddha
  127. ____ means "thatness" "thusness" and "suchness"; the uniqueness of each changing moment of reality
  128. ____ means the three "baskets" or collections of the buddhists texts
Card Set