1. the structures outside the eyeball: includes the orbit, eye muscles, eyelids, eyelashes, conjunctiva, and lacrimal apparatus
    adnexa of the eyes
  2. the bony cavity of the skull that contains and protects the eyeball and its associated muscles, blood vessels, and nerves.

    aka eye socket
  3. the angle where the upper and lower eyelids meet
  4. where the eyelids meet nearest the nose
    inner canthus
  5. a vertical fold of skin on either side of the nose
  6. where the eyelids meet farthest from the nose
    outer canthus
  7. the framework within the upper and lower eyelids that provides the necessary stiffness and shape 
  8. the transparent mucous membrane that lines the underside of each eyelid and continues to form a protective covering over the exposed surface of the eyeball
  9. consists of the structures that produce, store and remove tears
    lacrimal apparatus
  10. secrete lacrimal fluid 
    lacrimal glands
  11. tears
    lacrimal fluid
  12. consists of a duct at the inner corner of each eye.  Collect tears and empty them into the lacrimal sacs
    lacrimal canal
  13. an enlargement of the upper portion of the lacrimal duct
    lacrimal sac
  14. the passageway that drains excess tears into the nose
    lacrimal duct
  15. aka the white of the eye

    maintains the shape of the eye and protects the delicate inner layers of tissue. Forms the outer layer of the eye
  16. the opaque middle layer of the eyeball that contains many blood vessels and provides the blood supply for the entire eye.
  17. the sensitive innermost layer that lines the posterior segment of the eye
  18. makes up the front one third of the eyeball
    anterior segment
  19. located behind the cornea and in front of the iris
    anterior chamber
  20. located behind the iris and in front of the ligaments holding the lens in place
    posterior chamber
  21. the liquid that fills the chambers of the eye
    aqueous fluid
  22. drains and filters the aqueous fluid
    trabecular meshwork
  23. where the aqueous fluid drains through after passing through the trabecular meshwork
    canal of Schlemm
  24. a measurement of the fluid pressure inside the eye
    intraocular pressure
  25. makes up the remaining two thirds of the eyeball, lined with the retina and filled with the vitreous gel
    posterior segment
  26. a soft, clear jelly like mass that contains millions of fine fibers
    vitreous gel
  27. receptors that receive white and black
  28. receptors that receive color 
  29. a clearly defined yellow area in the center of the retina.  Area of sharpest central vision
  30. the pit in the middle of the macula.  Color area is best in this area because it contains a high concentration of cones and no rods
    fovea centralis
  31. a small region in the eye where the nerve endings of the retina  enter the optic nerve

    aka blind spot
    optic disk
  32. transmits nerve impulses from the retina to the brain
    optic nerve
  33. the pigmented layer of the eye; has a rich blood supply and consists of the choroid, ciliary body and iris
    uveal tract
  34. located within the choroid, it is a set of muscles and suspensory ligaments that adjust the thickness of the lens to refine the focus of light rays on the retina
    ciliary body
  35. the process whereby the eyes make adjustments for seeing objects at various distances
  36. the simultaneous inward movement of the eyes toward each other
  37. the normal relationship between the refractive power of the eye and the shape of the eye that enables light rays to focus correctly on the retina
  38. the ability of the lens to bend light rays so they focus on the retina
  39. the ability to distinguish object details and shape at a distance
    visual acuity
  40. drooping of the upper eyelid that is usually due to paralysis
  41. a localized swelling inside the eyelid resulting from obstruction of a sebaceous gland
  42. the eversion of the edge of an eyelid
  43. turning outward
  44. turning inward
  45. the inversion of the edge of an eyelid
  46. a pus-filled lesion on the eyelid resulting from an infection in a sebaceous gland

    aka a stye
  47. bleeding between the conjunctiva and the sclera
    subconjunctival hemorrhage
  48. inflammation of the uveal tract affecting primarily structures in front of the eye
  49. pitting of the cornea caused by an infection or injury
    corneal ulcer
  50. a benign growth on the cornea that can become large enough to distort vision
  51. an adhesion that binds the iris to an adjacent structure such as the lens or cornea
  52. a condition in which the pupils are unequal in size.  Can be congenital or caused by a head injury, aneurysm, or pathology of the central nervous system
  53. PERRLA (abbreviation that stand for..)
    Pupils are equal, round, responsive to light and accommodation
  54. an involuntary, constant, rhythmic movement of the eyeball that can be congenital or caused by a neurological injury or drug use.
  55. aka choked disc

    swelling and inflammation of the optic nerve at the point of entrance into the eye through the optic disk
  56. a progressive degeneration of the retina that affects night and peripheral vision.  Can be detected by the presence of dark spots in the retina
    Retinitis pigmentosa
  57. occurs as aging causes the vitreous gel to slowly shrink.  The fine fibers within the gel pull on the retinal surface.  Most cases it isnt sight threatening, but can cause a retinal tear.
    Vitreous detachment
  58. a group of diseases characterized by increased intraocular pressure that cause damage to the retinal nerve fibers and the optic nerve
  59. most common form of this condition.  The trabecular meshwork gradually becomes blocked, and this causes a build up of pressure. Symptoms aren't noticed until optic nerve has been damaged. 
    Open-angle glaucoma
  60. the opening between the cornea and iris narrows so that fluid cannot reach the trabecular meshwork. Produces severe pain, nausea and redness of the ey, and blurred vision.  Can cause blindness in as little as two days.
    Closed-angle glaucoma
  61. perception of two images of a single object
  62. blindness in one half of the visual field
  63. color blindness
  64. night blindness
  65. the condition of common changes in the eyes that occur with aging
  66. a disorder in which the eyes point in different directions or are not aligned correctly because the eye muscles are unable to focus together
  67. cross-eyes
  68. walleye, or outward deviation of one eye relative to the other
  69. a focusing problem that occurs when the lens and cornea do not  bend light so that is focuses properly on the retina
    refractive disorder
  70. any error of refraction in which images do not focus properly  on the retina.
    Astigmatism, hyperopia, and myopia are all forms
  71. a condition in which the eye does not focus properly because of uneven curvatures of the cornea
  72. farsightedness;  light rays focus beyond the retina
  73. nearsightedness; light rays focus in front of the retina
  74. a dimness of vision or the partial loss of sight, esp in one eye, without detectable disease of the eye
  75. blind spot; an abnormal area of absent or depressed vision surrounded by an area of normal vision
  76. used to measure visual acuity
    Snellen chart
  77. an examination procedure to determine an eye's refractive error so that the best corrective lenses can be prescribed
  78. the unit of measurement of a lens' refractive power
  79. a diagnostic procedure in which a narrow beam of light is focused onto parts of the eye to permit the ophthalmologist to examine the structures at the front of the eye
    slit-lamp ophthalmoscopy
  80. the measurement of intraocular pressure
  81. the application of fluorescent dye to the surface of the eye.  Causes a corneal abrasion to appear bright green
    fluorescein staining
  82. a radiographic study of the blood vessels in the retina of the eye following the intravenous injection of a fluorescein dye as a contrast medium
    fluorescein angiography
  83. performed to determine losses in peripheral vision
    visual field testing
  84. surgical procedure to treat myopia, where incisions are made in the cornea to cause it to flatten.
    radial keratotomy
  85. the use of ultrasonic vibration to shatter and remove the lens clouded by a cataract.
  86. an eye in which the natural lens has been replaced with an intraocular lens
  87. uses a focused beam of light to create a hole in the iris of they
    laser iridotomy
  88. used to treat open-angle glaucoma by creating openings in the trabecular meshwork to allow fluid to drain properly
    laser trabeculoplasty
  89. the use of lasers to treat some forms of wet macular degeneration by sealing leaking or damaged blood vessels
  90. aka the auricle; the external portion of the ear
  91. transmits sound waves from the pinna to the tympanic membrane of the middle ear
    external auditory canal
  92. earwax
  93. eardrum
    tympanic membrane
  94. hollow air spaces located in the mastoid process of the temporal bone
    mastoid bone cells
  95. three small bones found in the middle ear; ransmit the sound waves from the eardrum to the inner ear by vibration
    auditory ossicles
  96. hammer
  97. anvil
  98. stirrup
  99. narrow tubes that lead from the middle ear to the nasal cavity and the throat
    eustachian tubes
  100. labyrinth; contains the sensory receptors for hearing and balance
    inner ear
  101. located under the base of the stapes; the membrane that separates the middle and inner ears. 
    oval window
  102. snail shaped fluid filled structure that forms the inner ear
  103. fluid filled cavity within the cochlea that vibrates when sound waves strike it
    cochlear duct
  104. receives the vibrations from the cochlear duct and relays them to the auditory nerve fibers
    organ of Corti
  105. these contain the liquid endolymph and sensitive hair-like cells. Help maintain equilibrium.
    Semicircular canals
  106. transmit information to the brain from the semicircular canals, to ensure that equilibrium is maintained
    acoustic nerves
  107. the process by which sound waves enter the ear through the pinna
    air conduction
  108. occurs as the eardrum vibrates and moves the auditory ossicles
    bone conduction
  109. occurs when sound vibrations reach the inner ear.  The structures of the inner ear receive the sound waves and relay them to the auditory nerve to go to the brain
    sensorineural conduction
  110. swimmer's ear; a fungal infection of the external auditory canal
  111. distention of the eustachian tube
    patulous eustachian tube
  112. associated with an upper respiratory infection and is most commonly seen in young children. Can lead to a ruptured eardrum
    Acute otitis media
  113. fluid build up in the middle ear that can follow acute otitis media or can be caused by obstruction of the eustachian tube
    serous otitis media
  114. a buildup of pus within the middle ear due to infection
    acute purulent otitis media
  115. a rare chronic disease in which the amount of fluid in the inner ear increases intermittently, producing attacks of vertigo, a fluctuating hearing loss and tinnitus
    Meniere's syndrome
  116. a ringing, buzzing or roaring sound in one or both ears
  117. a gradual loss of sensorineural hearing that occurs as the body ages
  118. occurs when sound waves are prevented from passing from the air to the fluid filled inner ear.
    conductive hearing loss
  119. nerve deafness; develops when the auditory nerve or hair cells in the inner ear are damaged
    sensorineural hearing loss
  120. the measurement of the ability to hear and understand speech sounds based on their pitch and loudness
    audiological evaluation
  121. use of an audiometer to measure hearing acuity
  122. measure of sound frequency that determines how high or low a pitch is
  123. commonly used as the measurement of the loudness of a sound
  124. use of air pressure in the ear canal to test for disorders of the middle ear
  125. surgical procedure in which a new opening is created in the labyrinth to restore hearing
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