Xray - RUS 3

  1. What is the most common image receptor?
    Photosensitive film
  2. Photosensitive
    sensitive to electromagnetic energies
  3. 4 components of modern x-ray film
    Base, Emulsion, adhesive, and supercoat
  4. What layer is flexible, durable and contains blue dye?
  5. What layer is made of silver halide crystals in gelatin?
  6. What layer holds emulsion to base?
  7. What layer prevents bubbling of emulsion during processing?
  8. What is the protective coating to prevent damage to emulsion?
  9. What are the 4 factors of film?
    Resolution, contrast, speed, latitude
  10. resolution
    ability to show detail
  11. Higher resolution has smaller or larger crystals? Thinner or thicker layers?
    smaller crystals and thinner layers
  12. Contrast
    Amount of gray shades imaged by a type of film
  13. Higher resolution will result in lower or higher contrast?
    higher contrast
  14. speed
    Sensitivity to light and ability to creat image
  15. latitude
    films ability to image various densities and contrasts
  16. What yields wider latitude?
    Larger crystals with thicker layers
  17. Wider latitude is good for chest or knee xrays?
    chest x-rays
  18. latent image
    unseen change in film before processing
  19. What ionizes to produce the latent image?
    Silver halide crystals by light photons from screen
  20. T or F Greater than 99% of latent image is formed by x-ray photons
  21. T or F Less than 1% of latent image is formed by visible light from intensifying screens
  22. What action begins the manifest image process?
    Inserting the film into the processor
  23. What are the 5 types of film?
    Intensifying screen, direct exposure, detail extremity, single emulsion, duplication
  24. What film uses large amts of silver in a thick layer?
    Direct exposure
  25. What film is used for bone work?
    detail extremity
  26. What film is used for mammography and ultrasound?
    single emulsion
  27. What film requires small crystals, higher dosages, and no grid?
    detail extremity
  28. What T should films be stored at?
    <68 degrees
  29. does film expire?
  30. How long are films kept for?
    7 years, longer for minors
  31. How long are N.A.T. films kept for?
    20 years
  32. What is the standard procedure for manual processing?
    time/T method
  33. What is the Time/T method
    Developer is 5 min. @ 68 degrees
  34. If T increases in manual processing, developing time?
    Decreases (hotter- faster)
  35. What are the 4 stages of processing?
    Developer, fixer, wash, and dry
  36. What chemical is used in the fixer stage
    acid chemical
  37. What chemical is used in the developer stage?
     Base chemical
  38. What is used in the wash stage
  39. What is used in the dry stage?
  40. Does automatic processing occur at a higher T than manual?
  41. In automatic processing, what are the times for each stage?
     Developer, 20-25s; Fixer, 20s; Wash, 20s; Dry, 25-30s
  42. transport rocks
    system of rollers
  43. crossovers
    direct film from one chemical tank to next
  44. Drive System
    Gears and chains of belts which drive mechanism
  45. Replenishment
    chemicals are constantly refreshed as they are used to maintain consistency
  46. What stage is most sensitive to contamination?
  47. Silver recovery is mostly recovered from?
  48. What is the least expensive method of silver recovery?
  49. Undeveloped green film contains much?
  50. What overflow is toxic in silver recovery?
  51. chemical fog
    unwanted exposure of film by environment
  52. What are the 3 causes of chem. fog?
    Developer T is too high, Developer time is too long, [ ] of chemicals is too strong
  53. If developer T is too cool what will happen to the film?
    under developed
  54. T or F Film is more sensitive to exposure after it has been exposed?
  55. Safeness of environment is controlled by what 3 factors?
    Wattage, type of filter, and distance
  56. The wattage of the bulb should be?
  57. What is the standard filter in x-ray?
     Kodak GBX dark red
  58. What is the distance from the work area?
    4 feet
  59. sensitometry
    science of measuring film/processing response and comparing to specifications of manufacturer.
  60. What is the least accurate sensitometry method?
  61. What is used to read optical density in designated sections of the film?
  62. Good sensitometry should be done at what part of day?
    Same time of day at regular intervals
  63. What is used to determine normal limits in sensitometry?
    D log/E curve (Hurter and Driffield Curves)
  64. Unexposed silver halides are washed away in what stage?
    fixer stage
  65. Silver is mostly recovered in what stage?
    Fixer stage
  66. What are th 4 methods of silver recovery?
    Metallic replacement, electrolytic, chemical precipitation, and resin
  67. Can scrap film be recycled?
  68. What screen changes photon energy into visible light?
    Intensifying screens
  69.  Is pt. exposure reduced with intensifying screens?
  70. Screens are constructed of what 4 parts?
    Base, reflective layer, phosphor, and protective coating
  71. What screen layer directs isotropic light toward film?
    Reflective layer
  72. What screen layer emits light when excited by x-ray photons?
  73. Luminescence
    ability of a material to emit light when excited
  74. What are the 2 types of luminescence?
    Phosphorescence and Fluorescence
  75. What luminescence type has instantaneous emission
  76. What luminescence type is bad?
  77. Spectral matching
    matching light color with sensitivity of film
  78. Calcium tungstate emits what color of light?
  79. Rare Earth emits what color of light?
  80. Rare Earth uses phosphors with Atomic #?
  81. Does calcium tungstate or rare earth reduces pt. exposure?
    Rare earth
  82. Does intensifying screens have the same characteristics as film?
    Yes, resolution, speed, and contrast
  83. Poor contact results in loss of what?
    Loss of image sharpness and increased density at the area of poor contact
  84. Artifacts
    Unwanted densities that obscure film details
  85. Higher speed screens require less or more exposure to produce an image?
    less exposure
  86. Are higher or lower speed screens used for larger body parts?
    Higher speed screens
  87. Relative speed and what are inversely related?
  88. What is the relative speed formula?
    mAs1/ mAs2= RS2/RS1
Card Set
Xray - RUS 3
RUS 3 Study cards