When do you discontinue a normal start?
- Prop pump 1 on initial start
- Abnormal vibration
- Stagnate or decay
- Pressure less than 25 @16%
- Light off by 33/max motoring
- Oil press by 35%
- Time from rotation to low idle is >60s
- Cold start
- Hot start
When are you overweight for takeoff?
- 1. Vd > Vr
- 2. LOF dist (w/ engine fail at Vr) > runway length available
- 3. If obstacles can't be cleared 3 engine
- 4. If > 135k
Fuels: definitions and examples of each: primary, restricted, emergency.
- Primary: continuous/unrestriced use (JP4/5/8, Jet A-1/B)
- Restricted: operational restrictions (they gel at high altitudes) (Jet 1)
- Emergency: urgent need (hurrevac) (100LL, JP8+100)
List all speeds as you roll down the runway.
- Vmcg: 102 at 4600SHP, 97 at 3600SHP
- Vd: minimum to T/O within remaining distance
- Vr: maximum speed to abort safely
- Vro: transition to flight
- Vlof: wheels off deck
- V50: speed to clear 50 foot obstacles
What are the 8 things assumed when signing for a flight plan?
- IFS PAWWN:
- Instrument rating
- Fuel/WX is within governing directives
- Pax briefing
- WX brief
What are oxygen requirements per 3710?
- If cabin altitude exceeds 10k - All on O2
- If A/C altitude is 0-FL250, readily avail for everyone
- If A/C altitude is FL250-350, Immediately avail for pilot, readily available for everyone else
Fuel requirements per 3710?
- If NO alternate: T/O to destination +10%
- If YES alternate: T/O to IAF to alternate +10%
- In either case, no less than 20 mins max endurance 10k feet
When can you bypass a suitable field?
When pilot has considered the following:
- WX enroute and at destination
- Familiarity of airfield
- Alt/weight/fuel state at shutdown
- Nature of malfunction
Items on 14th stage bleed air
- Wing de-ice
- Engine anti-ice
- Engine starting
- Bomb bay heat
- Oil cooler augmentation
- Close 5th and 10th stage
Items on RGB?
- Tach Gen
- Oil pump and filter
Items on accessory section?
- Engine fuel pump
- Speed sense control
- Speed sense valve
- Main oil pump
- Oil filter
- Scavenge oil pump
E Handle functions?
- Fuel cutoff at FCU (E/M)
- Fuel cutoff at emergency shutoff (M)
- Feather system activates (E)
- Feather valve positioned to feather (M)
- Bleed air shutoff valve closes (E)
- Oil tank shutoff valve closes (E)
- Gen cooling doors close (M)
- EDC dumped and firewall shutoff closes (E)
AOA best angle of climb
Flap positions degrees and percentages
- Up- 0 and 0
- Maneuver - 40% and 10deg
- Approach - 77% and 18deg
- Land - 100% and 40deg
G limits less than 125k pounds
- 0-2.5 straight and level
- 1-2 rolling
G limits more than 125k pounds
- 0-2 straight and level
- 1-1.5 rolling
What are requirements to loiter?
- NTS check
- All buses energized, 2/3 are normal
- top 3/bottom 3
- OAT greater than 10deg with visible moisture
Flight AC components?
- Pitot heat pilot side
- Outflow valve
- Standby gyro
- Standby attitude indicator (non-efds)
- Essential Indicator light
Flight DC components?
- Utility lights
- Gen 4 aux control CB
- Pitchlock reset
- Inverter power relay
- INS 1/2
- Turn Needle
The limits on 4-3 are based on what?
No airspeed, no diffuser bleed, no accessory loading, and OAT -54 to +55deg
Lateral fuel imbalance limits tanks 1/4?
- 1400 for takeoff
- 4389 for in flight or landing
Lateral fuel imbalance limits tanks 2/3?
- 5025 for takeoff
- no limit of in flight or landing
Fuel capacity for all tanks?
- 1/4 - 1606
- 2/3 - 1671
- 5 - 2646
- Total: 9200
How many minutes after refueling can you dipstick?
1500psi @ 70 F
What are the 2 types of engine oil and temperature associated with each?
- 7808 - used when temp below -40 are anticipated
What are max main landing gear tire pressures?
- 190 psi up to 135,000
- 200 psi for 139,760
What are nose landing gear tire pressures?
- 150psi up to 135,000
- 170psi for 139,760
If TIT is less than 720, what does NATOPS say to do?
Discontinue, record, attempt a second with TD nulled. If still below 720, discontinue and maintenance is required.
What does natops say if all 4 engines start TIT is less than the normal range during cold weather ops?
If all starts are similar in TIT, consider this normal, no further action required.
What does natops say if start TIT exceeds 850?
Discontinue, record, attempt a second start. If exceeded again, discontinue, maintenance is required.
What do you do if 965 is exceeded during start?
Discontinue, overtemperature inspection is required.
What is definition of stagnated start?
RPM reluctant to accelerate above 35-50% and TIT does NOT rapidly rise to start limit.
What is the definition of stalled start?
RPM reluctant to accelerate above 35-50% and TIT DOES rapidly rise to start limit.
When can you apply maximum power?
Oil temp is 40 and rising, and no fluctuations in the RGB
When are wing and tail lights on?
power is applied to aircraft
When are wheelwell lights on?
night ground operations
When are taxi lights on?
hours of darkness when aircraft is in motion unless it blinds someone else
When are landing and taxi lights on?
with gear down, for all landings, takeoffs, approaches, and all other operations below 10k feet
How long can you use landing lights without cooling airflow?
When are strobes on?
anytime props are rotating
What are shifting parameters?
- Less than 50 knots
- Minimum SHP
- No bleed air
- Power levers (no movement)
When will you NOT use autofeathering?
High bird activity, if FSOV CB is out, or during landing
What information SHALL the FE provide for takeoff roll?
refusal, rotation, V504, V503, 3 ROC, and takeoff speed schedule if conditions are distinctly unfavorable
Procedures for stuck power lever OR prop overspeed during NTS check?
- 1. Clean up
- 2. Speed up
- 3. E-handle
- 4. FX button
- In all cases, do NOT attempt another NTS check, and mission should be aborted
When do you need a fuel log?
more than 500 NM from suitable landing field, or more than 6 hrs. they can be kept hourly or in 5000 lb increments
Prior to 2 engine loiter, what shall be calculated?
single engine rate of decent
What are loitering requirements?
- NTS check
- All buses energized, Gen 2/3 normal
- Top 3 bottom 3
- OAT not <10 w/ visible moisture,
- -OR- OAT not <0 w/o visible moisture
You can still loiter at <0 OAT, but there is a time limit due to prop fluid getting to -26 deg
During loiter shutdown, prop fails to feather, now what?
execute FPTF, if it feathers in first 4, go back to loiter shutdown checklist and complete it.
If it does NOT feather in first 4, complete entire PFTF checklist, and proceed to emergency shutdown checklist.
During loiter shutdown, the prop rotates backwards, now what?
pull FX button to unfeather, then to neutral once rotation stops. If it begins to rotate forward, push feather button in, and repeat the process as necessary.
Continued loiter ops are permissible - ensure FX button is pushed prior to restart!
What constitutes a good NTS check?
Stabilized RPM below mech gov. with pwr lever at flight idle (not less than 95%) and one of the following:
Initial or continuous flashing FX valve light, SHP in the NTS range, noticable yaw in conjunction with NTS
In flight restart: FX button light on following PCO
- Pull E handle
- If light goes out, push button back in, continue with restart
- If light stays on, pull prop FX cont CB and investigate, another restart can be attempted if corrected. Otherwise, pull prop feather control CB and complete emergency shutdown
In flight restart: blade angle/rotation is observed following PCO
Emergency shutdown procedure
In flight restart: FX button is pulled, but FX button is steady (should be flashing)
Check for visible fluid on nacelle OR any other abnormal indications. If either are observed, stuff the button, and execute emergency shutdown
In flight restart: NTS inopr occurs, can another airstart be attempted?
In flight restart: blade angle NO rotation
stuff the button, attempt with starter button (it was a strong prop brake)
In flight restart: premature light off
Continue the restart, once engine is on speed, turn fuel and ignition switch on and complete in flight restart checklist prior to troubleshooting
In flight restart: no oil pressure rising
stuff the button
In flight restart: no light off within 10 secs
- stuff the button
- You can try again to do a start, but otherwise execute emergency shutdown
In flight restart: what is FE standing by for E handle?
- RPM stagnate or decay
- Oil pressure fail to rise by 35 in event of premature lightoff
- TIT exceeds 850
In flight restart: PP1 light not out by 55%
continue restart, mission should be aborted
Minimum runway length for touch and go?
Minimum length for full stop landing?
5000 (you can go below with CO approval)
Hot brakes procedures? (during taxi and while parked)
Use normal RPM on 2 or 3 based on the side of hot brakes. During taxi, set pwr lever forward of ground start. If parked, set the good brake, and set 1000 SHP on the side of the brakes needing cooling. Or you can use chocks instead of setting the good brake.
Are no flap touch and gos permitted?
Yes, with an IP in the right seat.
When is the rinse facility NOT used?
external stores (except sonobouys) loaded, chaff and flare loaded, or OAT below 40 F
What is the FE looking for on shutdown on the ground on the secure checklist?
NTS lights - if not, maintenance is required.
What is crew rest defined as?
The non duty time before a flight duty period begins. Including free time for meals, transportation, and 8 hours uninterrupted sleep
When does crew rest begin? and end?
Begins at termination of official duties, ends prior to reporting for preflight prep.
What things do you discuss if single generator?
U Better Fly Back VFR
- Utility lights
- Boost handles uncovered
- Flashlights ready
- Brief co pilot for essential bus monitoring switch
- get VFR and stay VFR
What is the generator reset procedure?
- 1. Gen switch off
- 2. gen control CB pull and reset
- 3. gen switch on
- 4. if light remains on or comes back on, gen switch off
- 5. continue engine operation, mission should be aborted
How do you start the APU in flight?
- 1. Generator switch off
- 2. fuel boost pump on (xfeed if required)
- 3. arming switch armed
- 4. start switch to start
- 5. gen switch on
Explain partial load monitoring.
Is activated when: single engine driven gen (ANY altitude) OR APU gen only (below 8k feet)
Is activated by: Placing emp de ice or prop de ice to on or test
- What is shedded: Heaters eaters and feeders
- Heaters: side windshield heat, floor/wall heat
- Eaters: galley power
- Feeders: AC and DC power feeders (HUAMARI)
- HF2, UHF2, ADF, Marker beacon, autopilot, radar, ins2
Explain full load monitoring.
Is activated when: APU only above 8k
Is activated by: no action required
What is shedded: Heaters, eaters, feeders, 1A, and emp de-ice
- Heaters: side windshield heat, floor/wall heat
- Eaters: galley power
- Feeders: AC and DC feeders (HUAMARI)
- HF2, UHF2, ADF, marker beacon, autopilot, radar, ins2
- How do you get emp de ice back?
- Kill remaining hydraulic pumps (go boost out!)
- Kill 3 boost pumps
- Kill cabin exhaust fan
What are the reasons to execute emergency shutdown?
- Power loss
- Oil press
- Oil temp
- TIT excessive
- Chips light
What is the restoring oil procedure?
- Pull wiper switch CB
- wait 10 seconds, pull Oil tank SOV CB
- reset wiper switch CB
When do you go boost out?
- Flight controls immovable or require abnormally high force
- Uncontrollable pitch roll or yaw
When do you NOT shift to boost off?
- Trim tab malfunction
- Autopilot malfunction
- Binding controls
- Controls move freely but have no effect
What happens if you go boost out, but can't shift?
- 1. shift the other controls to boost off
- 2. turn off all pumps
- 3. shift the control surface that is malfunctioning
- 3a. if this worked, turn pumps back on, and shift back in on the remaining surfaces
- 3b. if this didn't work, leave everything where it is and refer to boost off landing
What do you do if controls move freely but have no effect?
use autopilot, or trim tabs
Why don't you let the fuel gauges drive to zero?
damage to calibration may result
What do you do with stuck fuel gauge?
Test, tap, check
What do you do with fuel quantity goes off scale?
Pull it (CB), log it (fuel log)
What altitude does fuel aeration occur?
What do you do for a boost pump failure - climb or cruise?
- Verify pump failure (establish crossfeed if in a climb)
- switch off, pull CB
What do you do with a transfer pump failure?
Reduce tank 5 quantity to 3k. Transfer 1000 pounds out to the wing tanks at a time for the remaining 3k of fuel. The scavenge elements are half as fast as the pump element in the forward tank.
What angle of bank are you limited to when boost out?
What are factors that effect takeoff performance?
- NATOPS specifically mentions:
- Leading edge condition
- Engine Eff less than 100
- Tire inflation
- Techniques to align aircraft and set power
- Stores (external)
- OIL are also considered
- Length/condition of runway
What flap position is fuel dumping prohibited? Where does natops recommend to put the flaps?
Prohibited BEYOND approach. Recommended flaps up.
Can you do takeoffs and practice landings with a chips light?
What is the definition of a prop malfunction?
Light, leak, or audible offspeed.
- An offspeed is defined as 1 of 2 things:
- 1. greater than 1% above or below mechanical/electrical governing rpm
- 2. sustained oscillation
What is the first warning of the prop malfunction?
Significant airframe vibration combined with external propeller fluid leaks and/or propeller pump lights may be indicative by profound vibration of the power lever and/or E handle. Continued operation may result in blade seperation and subsequent loss of prop and/or RGB. If significant airframe vibration occurs in conjunction with visible prop fluid leaks and/or prop pump lights, consider completing the emergency shutdown procedure.
What is the second warning of the prop malfunction?
If an immediate uncontrolled overspeed of 115 occurs, reduce airspeed as rapidly as practical to the speed at which safe control of the aircraft and propeller can be maintained, but initially not less than 150. Subsequent airspeed selection should be based on aircraft gross weight, controllability, and RPM. Perform operation with a pitchlocked prop.
What are the memory items and first caution of the prop procedure.
1. if rpm at or above 115, reduce airspeed (150 kts minimum) and perform operation with a pitchlocked propeller procedure.
2. if rpm below 115, smoothly advance power lever(s) toward cruise conditions and increase TAS, noting engine indications (normal rated power if range is a factor).
Caution: if the prop pitchlocked at low power settings, shp may be or become negative. In this case, consider initially decreasing TAS to check for pitchlock to avoid inadvertent decouple or unsave increase in rpm.
Explain good, bad, and ugly.
Good: NTS (indicated by the normal NTS check indications) - you will E handle if you get this.
Bad: No NTS, remains coupled (indicated by decreased RPM, power section oil near normal, and shp steady in the neg range and responsive to TAS changes) - if controlability is an issue, you may need to increase TAS to force a decouple
Ugly: No NTS, decouple (indicated by RPM extremely sensitive to changes in TAS, shp 0 or wandering, power section oil decreasing to 0
Explain pitchlock without overspeed.
Bottom line up front: When in terminal area, execute emergency shutdown
Certain malfunctions of the pitchlock regulator can cause a pitchlock in the governing range without an overspeed condition. In this case, retarding the power lever produces a decrease in rpm, but moving the power lever forward again causes rpm to increase to only 100. Continued forward movement of the power lever will cause the shp indication to increase. If this condition occurs, continued operation is permissible.
What are indications of a decouple due to decoupler failure?
shp 0 or wandering, TIT 550, RPM 100, fuel flow 600
What are the indications of a decouple due to flameout?
shp 0 or wandering, TIT decreasing to ambient, RPM 100, fuel flow 0, power section oil pressure will be near 0
What are indications of a spin? of a spiral?
Spin: AOA pegged, airspeed stable, turn needle pegged
Spiral: AOA pegged, airspeed increasing, turn needle pegged
Memory items: FOUO
- 1. alert the crew, activate the fire bill
- 2. cabin exhaust fan off
Memory items: Pressurization loss
- 1. don smoke masks
- 2. alert the crew
Memory items: Rapid decompression
- 1. pressurization ground check switch to test
- 2. ground AC on
Memory items: Emergency depressurization
- With electrical power:
- 1. aux vent open
- 2. outflow valve open
- 3. EDCs dump
- 4. aux vent close at 1 inch diff
- Without electrical power:
- 1. open free fall chute
Memory items: Emergency descent
- 1. autopilot off
- 2. power levers idle
- 3. landing gear as required
- 4. airspeed as required
- 5. pressurization as required
Memory items: ditching
1. alert the crew time to impact
Memory items: brake fire
- 1. request fire fighter assistance
- 2. stop the aircraft
Memory items: split flap
- 1. if uncontrollable, reset flap handle to previous position
- 2. if controllable, land with flap handle in selected position
Memory items: shifting to boost off
- 1. autopilot off
- 2. attempt to attain a safe altitude
- 3. set 5
- 4. check trim tab positions
- 5. if still uncontrollable, pull boost handle
Memory items: loss of all airpseed
1. check pitot heat on
Memory items: cracked windshield
- 1. turn off heat on affected panel
- 2. don helmet
Memory items: stall recovery
- 1. disconnect autopilot
- 2. smoothly add symmetric power
- 3. relax backstick pressure 16 AOA or less
- 4. use rudder and aileron to center the ball and level the wings
Memory items: prop fails to feather
- 1. feather button push
- 2. pco push
- 3. alternate bus (1 and 4) select
- 4. prop feather CBs check in
- 5. reduce airspeed (min 150)
- 6. prop feather control CB pull
Memory items: OCF/ spin recovery
- 1. power levers idle
- 2. controls neutralize
- 3. AOA airspeed turn needle check
- 4. if in a spin, rudder full opposite turn needle
- 5. as soon as rotation stops, controls neutralize
- 6. recover from unusual attitude
Memory items: windshear recovery
- 1. max power
- 2. pitch 10 deg up
- 3. gear up
- 4. flaps remain in current setting
Memory items: waveoff 3 engine
- 1. power add as briefed
- 2. check flaps approach
- 3. gear up
Memory items: waveoff 2 engine
- 1. airpseed 145 minimum
- 2. maximum power (not to lose directional control)
- 3. raise dead engine 5 up
- 4. flaps approach
- 5. gear up
- 6. flaps maneuver
- 7. flaps up