soc chapter 2

  1. theory
    a framework that can be used to comprehend and explain events
  2. sociological theory
    a set of principles and definitions that tell how societies operate and how peopel in them relate to one another and respong to their surroundings
  3. function
    the contribution part of a society makes to order and stability within the society
  4. manifest functions
    intended or anticipated effects th part of a society has on order and stabilty within the society
  5. latent functions
    unintended or unanticipated effects tht part of a society has on order and stability within the society
  6. dystfunctions
    disrupted consequences to society or to some seqment in society
  7. manifest dysfunctions
    a parts anticipated disruptions to order and stability
  8. latent dysfuntions
    unintended, unanticipated distruptions to order and stability
  9. facade of legitamacy
    an explanation that members of dominant groups give to justify their actions
  10. social interaction
    everyday event in which two eopel cimmunicate, interpret, and respond to each others words and actions
  11. symbol
    any kind of physical phenomenon to which people assign a name, meaning or value
  12. r
  13. research
    a data gathering and data explaining enterprise governed by strict rules
  14. research methods
    techniques that sociologists and other investigators use to formulate or answer meaningful research questions and to collect, analyze, and interpret data in ways that allow other researchers to verify th results
  15. scientific method
    an appoach to data collection in which knowledge is gained through obersavtion and its truth is confirmed through verification
  16. objectivity
    a stance in which researchers personal, or subjective, views do not influence thier observations or the outcome of their research
  17. concepts
    thinking and communication tools used to give and recieve comples information efficiently and to frame and focus observatons
  18. research design
    a plan for gathering data that specifies who or what will be studied and the methods of data collection
  19. methods of data collection
    the procedures a researcher follows to father relevant data
  20. traces
    materials or other forms of physical evidence that yield information about human activity
  21. documents
    written or printed materials used in research
  22. territories
    settings that have borders or that are set aside for particular activities
  23. households
    all related and unrelated persons who share the same dwelling
  24. small groups
    groups of 2 to about 20 people who interact with one another in meaningful ways
  25. populations
    the total number of individuals, traces, documents, territories, households, or groups that could be studied
  26. samples
    portions of the cases from a larger population
  27. random sample
    a type of sample in which every case in the population has an equal chance of being selected
  28. represenatative sample
    a type of sample in which those selected for study have the same distribution of characteristics as the population from which it is selected
  29. sampling frame
    a complete list of every case in a population
  30. self-administering questionaire
    a set of questions given to respondents who read the instrictions and fill in the answers themselves
  31. inerviews
    face to face or telephone concersations between an interviewer and a respondent, in which the interviewer asks questions and records the respondents answers
  32. structured interview
    an interview in which the wording and sequence of questions are set in advance and cannot be changed during the interview
  33. unstrucutured interview
    an interview in which the question and answer sequence is spontaneous, open-ended and flexible
  34. observation
    a research technique in which the researcher watches, listens to, and records behavior and conversations as they happen
  35. nonparticipant observation
    a research technique in which the researcher observes study participants without interacting with them
  36. paricipant observation
    a research technique in which the researcher observes study participants while directly interactiong with them
  37. hawthorne effect
    a phenomenon in which research subjects alter their behavoir when they learn they are being observed
  38. secondary sources (archival data)
    data thathave been collected by other researchers for some other purpose
  39. variable
    any trait or characteristic that can change under different conditions or that consists of more than one category
  40. dependent variable
    the varaible to be explained or predicted
  41. independent variable
    the variable that explains or predicts the dependent variable
  42. hypothesis
    a trial explanation put forward as the focus of research; it predicts how independent and dependent variables are related and how a dependent variable will change when an independent variable changes
  43. operational definitions
    clear, percise definitions and instructions about how to observe and or measure the variables under study
  44. reliability
    the extend to which an operational definition gives consistent results
  45. validity
    the degree to which an operational definition measures what it claims to measure
  46. generalizability
    the extent to which finding can be applied to the larger population from which a sample is drawn
  47. correlation coefficiant
    a mathematical representation that quanifies the extent to which a change in one variable is associated with a change in another variable
  48. spurious correlation
    a correlation that is coincidental or accidental because the independent and dependent variables are not actualy related; rather some third variable related to both of them makes it seem as though they are
  49. control variables
    variables suspected of causing spurious correlations
  50. ascribed characteristics
    any physical trait that s biological in origin and or cannot be changed, to which people assign overwhelming sigificance
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soc chapter 2