1. What is habituation?
    • Repeated presentation of a stimulus results in a decreased response over time.
    • This is the basis fot exposure therapy and systematic desensitization.
  2. What is Sensitization?
    Repeated presentation of a stimulus results in an increased response over time.
  3. Describe classical conditioning.
    • This is Pavloovian conditioning.
    • A neutral stimulus (e.g. a bell) is paired with a stimulus (e.g. a food) that would trigger a response (e.g. salivation).
    • Over time, the neutral stimulus then triggers the conditions response.
  4. Describe Operant Conditioning.
    Learning occurs as a consequence of action (essentially trial and error) in which responses are strengthened or weakened by the experience.
  5. Describe Positive Reinforcement.
    • Consequences of a behavior increase the probability that it will occur again over time.
    • For example, food, money, praise, attention.
  6. Describe Negative Reinforcement.
    • When a behavior leads to the removal of an aversive event which reinforces the behavior in question.
    • For example, a compulsive ritual forestalls a perceived aversive outcome.
  7. Describe Punishment.
    The presentation of an aversive stimulus following a specific behavior that will decrease the probability that a behavior will occur.
  8. Defin Shaping.
    Progressively closer approximations of a desired behavior are reinforced over time until the exact behavior is acheived.
  9. Under what situations are Operant Conditioning of use clinically?
    • Young children
    • Persons with MR
    • Institutionalized Patients
    • Self Injurious Behaviors
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