What is habituation?
- Repeated presentation of a stimulus results in a decreased response over time.
- This is the basis fot exposure therapy and systematic desensitization.
What is Sensitization?
Repeated presentation of a stimulus results in an increased response over time.
Describe classical conditioning.
- This is Pavloovian conditioning.
- A neutral stimulus (e.g. a bell) is paired with a stimulus (e.g. a food) that would trigger a response (e.g. salivation).
- Over time, the neutral stimulus then triggers the conditions response.
Describe Operant Conditioning.
Learning occurs as a consequence of action (essentially trial and error) in which responses are strengthened or weakened by the experience.
Describe Positive Reinforcement.
- Consequences of a behavior increase the probability that it will occur again over time.
- For example, food, money, praise, attention.
Describe Negative Reinforcement.
- When a behavior leads to the removal of an aversive event which reinforces the behavior in question.
- For example, a compulsive ritual forestalls a perceived aversive outcome.
The presentation of an aversive stimulus following a specific behavior that will decrease the probability that a behavior will occur.
Progressively closer approximations of a desired behavior are reinforced over time until the exact behavior is acheived.
Under what situations are Operant Conditioning of use clinically?
- Young children
- Persons with MR
- Institutionalized Patients
- Self Injurious Behaviors