Surgical Assisting

  1. How should instruments be handled when preparing them for cleaning?
    • Gently
    • Surgical intruments should be disassembled if multi-componential and separated accordingly to be cleaned
  2. What are different types of sx packs?
    • General pack
    • Ortho pack
    • Ophthamic pack
    • Emergeny pack
    • Neuro pack
    • Lg animal pack
  3. What are the steps involved in cleaning instruments?
    • Rinse in water immediately after sx
    • Soak in neutral pH detergent
    • Scrub with soft brush
    • Ultrasonic cleaner
    • Thoroughly rinse & allow to air dry
    • Instrument milk on working actions
    • Inspect for cleanliness
    • Prepare for autoclave
  4. What is written on the autoclave tape?
    Initials, date & contents
  5. What type of drape is made for single use?
  6. Before cloth drapes and gowns are sterilized, what must be done to prepare them for the autoclave?
    Wash, dry and fold in accordian style, then double wrap
  7. How is the surgery gown folded?
    Inside out
  8. What is asepsis?
    Removal of microorganisms from living tissue
  9. What are the 4 techniques to prevent contamination during sx?
    • Scrubbing of surgical site
    • Scrubbing in surgical assistants
    • Sterile sx techniques
    • Monitoring for sterility breaks
  10. Exogenous sources of microorganisms include what?
    • Air
    • Instruments
    • Supplies
    • Skin 
    • Sx team
  11. What is an endogenous microorganism considered?
    Source from within the patient by bloodstream
  12. When a wound is closed too tightly, it cuts off the circulation to a portion of the body.  This is called what?
    Physiologic tourniuet
  13. List factors affecting contamination
    • Health of patient
    • Degree of tissue damage
    • Virulence & # of infectious agents
    • Failure in maintaining aseptic technique
  14. What is the difference between sterilization and disinfection?
    • Sterilization is destruction of all organisms and their spores
    • Disinfection is the destruction of vegetative forms of bacteria, but not the spores
  15. What are the 3 methods of sterilization?
    • Filtration
    • Radiation
    • Thermal energy
  16. Dry heat sterilization is used on what type of object? Give an example
    • Objects that cannot get wet
    • Instruments
  17. Moist heat sterilization kills _________ and _________ at __________ temperatures and takes __________ time than dry heat
    Bacteria; spores; lower; less
  18. When using the autoclave, what are the most important factors involved in complete sterilization?
    Ensuring the contents are completely penetrated and penetrated evenly
  19. What are the settings for a standard use of the autoclave?
    Minimum of 13 mins w/ a temp of 121oC (250oF) @ 15# of pressure
  20. How long should lg packs be left in the autoclave?
    30 - 45 min
  21. What are the settings for a flash sterilizaion?
    3 mins @ 131o C (270o F)
  22. What are the forms of chemical sterilization?  Give an example of each
    • Lq: glutaraldehyde
    • Gas: hydrogen peroxide gas plasma
  23. What  is the type of gas sterilizant that is dangerous due to it's flammability and toxicity?
    Ethylene oxide
  24. Ethylene oxide is based off of what characteristics to be effective?
    • Exposure time and temp
    • Relative humidity
    • Gas [ ]
  25. Hydrogen peroxide gas plasma inactivated what agents?
    • Mycobacteria
    • Bacterial spores
    • Fungi
    • Viruses
  26. Does hydrogen peroxide gas plasma require aeration time?
  27. What are factors which effect chemical disinfection?
    • Material to be disinfected
    • Degree of soil and microbial contamination
    • [ ] of disinfectant
    • Germicidal potency
  28. Iodine is an effective ____________ agent
  29. What common surgical scrub can cause skin irritation and acute contact dermatitis?
  30. What are benefits of using chlorhexidine?
    • Rapid onset
    • Long residual activity
    • No skin irritation
  31. Alcohol is an effective _____________, but is ineffective against __________ and __________, and cannot be used on __________ because it is cytotoxic.
    Antibacterial; spores; fungi; open wounds
  32. What is an example of quaternary ammonium?
    Benzalkonium chloride
  33. This chemical disinfectant has broad bactericidal and virucidal activity but can be cytotoxic.
  34. Glutaraldehyde is commonly used in _____________ and ____________ equipment
    Cold trays; endoscopic equipment
  35. What is commonly used for preservation of tissue specimens?
  36. How do you sterilize arthroscopic equipment?
    • Gas
    • Cold sterilization: Cidexplus for 20 min & rinse w/ sterile H2O
  37. When prepping for sterilization, what are the steps for a surgical assistant to take?
    • Remove jewelry
    • Change clothing
    • Don cap, mask, & shoe covers
    • Perform surgical scrub
    • Don sterile gown
    • Don sterile gloves
  38. Where should the hands be when performing a surgical scrub?
    Above the elbows
  39. What should you always do before performing a surgical scrub?
    • Don cap and mask
    • Open the gown pack
  40. How long must you perform a hand scrub to perform adequate sterilization?
    5 min
  41. What are the two methods of gloving and when are they used?
    • Open: minor procedures that require hands to be sterile but no gown (bone marrow biopsy, catheterization)
    • Closed: used when gowning for sx
  42. What does draping maintain?
    A sterile field
  43. What is the draping method using 4 drapes called?
    Quarter drapes
  44. How should a sterile item be opened?
    • Outer wrap opened by non-sterile assistant by only touching the outside of the pack
    • Inner wrap opened by surgeon or sterile assistant
  45. How do you open items in plastic or paper wraps?
    Peel wrapper back slowly, symmetrically, and facing away from the body so sterile personnel can grab
  46. What is strike through?
    When a surgical gown is wet with blood or saline, which is permeable to bacteria
  47. Where is sterile saline poured?
    Stainless steel bowl that has not been touched by the container
Card Set
Surgical Assisting
Technician role in surgical assisting