1. Axis I
    All mental disorders, including substance abuse and developmental disorders
  2. Axis II
    Personality disorders and mental retardation
  3. Axis III
    Any general medical condition or physical disorder
  4. Axis IV
    Psychosocial and environmental situations that contribute to the disorder (homelessness, economic difficulties)
  5. Axis V
    The global assessment of function, a rating system designed to assess the level of daily functioning based on social, occupational, and psychological assessment
  6. disorganized schizophrenia
    characterized by disorganized speech or behavior and flat or inappropriate affect
  7. catatonic schizophrenia
    motor immobility, excess motor activity that is without purpose, extreme negativism or mutism, perculiarily voluntary movement, and echolalia or echopraxia
  8. echolalia
    mimicking sound
  9. echopraxia
    mimicking behavior
  10. residual schizophrenia
    negative sx predominate
  11. What factors indicate a more favorable prognosis with schizophenia?
    late onset, acute onset, obvious precipitating factor, presence of positive sx
  12. Prodromal phase of schizophrenia
    functional decline, social withdrawal, and irritability
  13. residual phase of schizophrenia
    • occurs between psychotic episodes
    • blunted affect, odd thinking or behavior, and other negative sx
  14. Dx of schizophrenia
    At least two sx present during a 1 month period, and continuous signs of disorder persisting for at least 6 months
  15. Negative sx
    blunted affect, poor posture, lack of goal-directed activities or initiative
  16. Tx of schizophrenia
    • combo of antipsychotic drugs and psychosocial treatment
    • second generation antipsychotics
    • Second line: clozapine, or haldol
  17. Antipsychotic drug which can cause agranulocytosis
  18. How long should you try a trial of antipsychotics for?
    4-6 weeks
  19. Schizoaffective disorder
    meets criteria for major depressive episode, manic episode, or mixed episode, during which criteria for schizophrenia are also met
  20. m/c sx in somatoform disorder
    GI, reproductive, or neurologic sx, in addition to pain
  21. tx of somatization disorder
    • monthly scheduled visits with health care provider; group and individual psychotherapy
    • minimize secondary gain and medications
  22. m/c area of focus in body dysmorphic disorder
    the face
  23. Tx of body dysmorphic disorder
    SSRIs, tx of any coexisting depression or anxiety disorder (depression m/c)
  24. Conversion disorder
    one of more neurologic complaints that cannot be confirmed clinically
  25. m/c sx in conversion disorder
    shifting paralysis, blindness, and mutism
  26. la belle indifference
    conversion disorder, pts display an unexpected lack of concern and indifference to their sx
  27. tx of conversion disorder
    • insight-oriented or behavioral therapy is first line
    • hypnosis, anxiolytics, relaxation therapy
  28. Tx of hypochondriasis
    • group and insight-oriented psychotherapy
    • regularly scheduled appointments with provider
  29. Sx of MDD
    SIGECAPS x 2 weeks, and not the result of bereavement
  30. manic episode
    an abnormally and persistantly elevated, expansive, or irritable mood that lasts for at least 1 week
  31. Hypomanic episode
    at least four continuous days of an abnormall and persistantly elevated, expansive, or irritable mood where social and occupational functioning are not affected, nor is hospitalization needed
  32. suicide rate in MDD
  33. common side effects of SSRIs
    GI upset, HA, sexual dysfunction
  34. Serotonin syndrome
    • caused by MAO and SSRI combo
    • acute mental status changes
    • restlessness
    • diaphoresis
    • tremor
    • hyperthermia
    • coma and death
  35. Bipolar 1
    the occurence of one or more manic or mixed episodes, which often cycle with depressive episodes
  36. Bipolar II
    At least one or more major depressive episodes, and at least one hypomanic episode, but pt has never experienced a manic or mixed episode
  37. Dysthymic disorder
    chronic, persistent, mild depression that is manifested b pessimism, brooding, loss of interest, decreased productivity, feelings of inadequacy, and social withdrawal

    pt is in depressed mood for most of the day, for more days than not, for at least 2 years
  38. cyclothymic disorder
    • moody, erratic, impulsive, volatile
    • alternating periods of severe depressive episodes and hypomania over a two year period
  39. Adjustment disorder
    maladaptive behavioral or emotional sx that develop within three months after a stressful life event and end within 6 months of an event
  40. Tx of paranoid personalit disorder
    individual psychotherapy
  41. Schizoid personality disorder
    • lifelong pattern of voluntary social withdrawal, seen as eccentric and reclusive
    • quiet, unsociable, restrained affect
  42. Schizoid personality disorder tx
    • group therapy and psychotherapy
    • low dose, short term antipsychotics or antidepressants for comorbidity
  43. Schizotypal personality disorder
    • pervasive pattern of eccentric behavior and peculair thought patterns
    • person is seen as strange and eccentric
    • Pt experience delusions of grandeur
  44. Schizotypal personality disorder tx
    • psychotherapy (social skills training) is Tx of choice
    • short course of low dose antipsychotics, antidepressants, or benzos
  45. Borderline personality disorder tx
    psychotherapy with social skills training, behavioral therapy, individual and group therapy
  46. Difference between sadomasochistic and sadistic disorder
    • sadomasochistic: looking to humiliate more than hurt
    • sadistic: looking to hurt
  47. Difference b/w acute stress disorder and PTSD
    • acute stress disorder lasts < 1 mo, PTSD can last longer
    • acute stress disorder: sx have to develop within 1 mo of event; in PTSD, they can develop at any time
  48. anorexia def
    pts < 85% of expected body weight
  49. anorexia tx
    • hospitalize if < 20% below body weight
    • therapy
    • certain antidepressants if depression is present
    • using drugs with appetite stimulant or weight gain
  50. which ADHD drug has a lower side effect profile?
  51. How long does nl grief last?
    Severe sx within 2 months, all sx within 1 year
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