Sociology midterm

  1. Define Sociology?
    The study if human behavoirs as they are affected by social interactions within groups, organizations, societies, and the planet.
  2. Define Social interaction
    As everyday event in which the people involved take one another into ccount by conciously and unconsciously attaching mean to the situation, interpreting what others are saying, and then responding accordingly
  3. Social facts
    Ideas, feelings and ways of behaving "that possess the remarkable property of existing outside the consciousness of the individual."
  4. Issue
    A matter that can be explained only by factors outside an individuals control and immediate environment.
  5. Troubles
    Personal needs, problems, and difficulties that can be explained as individual shortcomings related to motivation, attitude, ability, character, or judgment
  6. Institution
    a relatively stable and predictable arrangment among people that has emerged over time to coordinate human interaction and behavior in ways that meetsome social need
  7. sociological imaginaton
    the ability to connect seemingly impersonal and remote social forces and historical event to the most basic incidents of an individuals life. the sociological imagination enable poeple to distinguish between perosnal troubles and public issues
  8. industrial revolution
    an ongoing process by which mechanized systems of production and transportation have replaced handmade, muscle-driven, laber-intensive systems
  9. mechanization
    the addition of external sources of power, such as coal, oil, or steam, to hand tools and modes of transportation
  10. conflict
    in marxist theory, the major force that drives social change
  11. means of production
    the resources (land, tools, equipment, factories, transportation, and labor) essential to the production and distribution of goods and services
  12. bourgeoise
    in marxist theory, owners of the means of production who exploit the labor of the proletariat
  13. proletariat
    in marxist theory, individuals who must sell their labor to the bourgeoisie
  14. solidarity
    the ties that bind people to one another in society
  15. suicide
    the act of severing relationships
  16. egoistic suicide
    suicide resulting from weak social ties that fail to attach the perosn to the group
  17. altruistic suicide
    suicide resulting from social ties so strong that the self has no life apart from the group
  18. anomic suicide
    suicide resulting from social ties distrupted by dramatic change in econimic circumstances
  19. fatalistic suicide
    suicide resulting from social ties whose disipline is so oppresssive it offers no change of release
  20. social actions
    actions people take in response to others
  21. traditional action
    social action that pursues a goal in response to an emotion such as revenge, love, or loyalty
  22. value-relational action
    social action that pursues a goal because it is valued, with no thought of its consequences and often without considering the appropriateness of the means chosen to achieve it
  23. instrumental action
    social action that pursues a goal after it has been evaluated in relation to other goals and after thorough consideration of the various means to achieve it
  24. disenchantment
    a great spiritual voud accompanied by a crisis of meaning. it occurs when people focus so uncritically on the ways they go about achieving a valued goal that they lose sight of that goal
  25. double consciousness
    according to dubois " this sene of always looking at ones self thoug hthe eyes of othes, of measuring ones soul by the tape of a world that looks on in amused contempt and pity" thr double consciousness inclusdes a sense of two-ness: an american a negro; two thoughts, two unreconciled strivings
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Sociology midterm
definitions for midterm