mini Arrows test

  1. how many tests are in each type of chem panel
    • pre-anesthetic: 6
    • genral heath profile: 12-24
    • Geriatric profile
    • Renal profile
  2. What kind of sample is required to run a chem panel
    Serum or Lithium heparin plasma (green bullets)
  3. Enzymes
    formed and function intracellularly thus we should see decreased levels in the blood indicates a problem with thats specific cell/tissue/organ
  4. 3 reasons for increased enzyme levels in the blood
    • 1. Leak out of damaged or dying cells
    • 2. Increased production
    • 3. blockage of excreatory route
  5. Examples of increase of  enzyme levels due to leaked out of damaged or dying cells
    -Any itis
  6. Examples of increase of  enzyme levels due to increased production
    • young animals-bone growth
    • neoplasia
  7. Examples of increase of  enzyme levels due to bloackage of excreatory routes
    HBO-hepatobiliary obstruction
  8. what unit is enzymes measured in?
    iu-international units
  9. what are two things that may interfere with enzyme blood levels
    Hemolysis and lipemea
  10. liver functions
    • protein synthesis
    • metabolism of carbs, proteins, lipids
    • Cholesterol synthesis
    • bile synthesis
    • detoxifies blood
    • Metabolism of drugs
  11. what proteins does the liver synthesis
    • Albumin, clotting proteins
    • if pt. has liver dz do clotting panel b4 sx
  12. Liver Enzymes
    • ALT
    • AST
    • ALK. Phos
    • GGT
    • Bilirubin
  13. ALT
    • Alanine aminotransferase
    • SGPT
    • major source come from hepatocytes in dogs cats and primates
    • it is not liver specific horses, ruminants, pigs
  14. Reasons for increased ALT
    • liver dz
    • hepatic trauma
    • +/- Neoplasia
    • long term use of drugs: steroids, anti-epilectics, nsaid,
    • strenuous exercise
  15. reasons of decreased ALT
    cirrhosis-hepatocytes are replaced with scar tissue
  16. AST
    • aspartate  aminotransferase
    • old name is SGOT
    • will increase for liver or bone
  17. Alk.Phos
    • alkaline phosphates
    • alp, alk, alkp
    • must have the pts age to interepret ^ alk.phos
    • made by osteoblast/chondroblast
    • not reliable in cattle or sheep because it fluctuates alot
  18. Reasons for increased alk. phos
    • HBO
    • drugs
    • bone injury
    • bone tumors
    • young pts
  19. GGT
    • Gamma glutamyltranspeptidase
    • Not used much in Cat and Dog diagnostics
    • liver specific enzyme in Lg. Animals
    • primary source of GGT is hepatocytes
  20. Reasons for increased GGT
    liver dz usually obstructive liver disease lg. animal
  21. Bilirubin
    • Tbili
    • light sensitive
  22. T bili
    Total bili=conjugated bilirubin+unconjugated bilirubin
  23. I. Bili
    indirect bilirubin=unconjugated bilirubin
  24. D. Bili
    direct bilirubin=conjugated bilirubin
  25. reasons for increased I. Bili
  26. reasons for decreased D. Bili
    • HBO
    • Liver dz because it wont store D. Bili
  27. Cholesterol
    • CHOL
    • synthesized by the liver, also through diet
  28. Hypercholesterolemia
    • HBO-cholesterol is a component of bile
    • hypothyroidism-lack of thyroid hormones which play a role in breakdown of cholesterol
    • Steroids
    • DM, pancreatitis, obstructed liver dz
  29. Hypocholesterolemia
    • liver failure-unabe to synthesize
    • prolonged anorexia/starvation
  30. Total Protein
    • TP, albumin, and globulin
    • total serum protein is lower than total plasma protein because is missing clotting proteins
  31. albumin
    synthesized by the liver
  32. Globulins
    • Alpha & Beta are synthesized by liver
    • Gamma are synthesized by lymph and are the most abundant in the body
  33. Hyperalbuminemia cause
    dehydration-relative increase
  34. Hypoalbuminemia
    • liver dz or failure-cannot synthesize
    • Protein losing enteropathy ie parvo due to blood in diarrhea
    • protein losing nephropathy-ie abnormal filtration of ALB  by the glomerulus
    • prolonged anorexia/starvation-decreased diatary intake
  35. Hyperglobulinemia
    • immune response
    • dehydration
  36. hypoglobulinemia
    • liver dz & failure-cant synth alpha and beta
    • Immunosupression-decreased gamma
  37. A:G
    • Albumin: Globulin
    • doesnt mean anything by itself
    • used with TP, ALB, and GLOB
  38. causes of`decreased  A:G
    • immune response
    • liver disease
    • FIP
  39. causes of Increased A:G
    • Felv
    • FIV
  40. kidney fx
    • regulates: h20 balance, electrolytes, blood pH
    • Excretes: Non-protein nitrogenous wastes (BUN: Creatinine)
    • Synthesizes: Renin (enzyme that regs. BP), EPO-erythropoietin
    • Conserves: glucose and protein
  41. reasons for increased BUN
    • pre renal, Post, and primary azotemia
    • increased protein diet
    • increased breakdown of body protein-fever, exercise, infx, necrosis
  42. Reason for decreased BUN
    • liver dz and failure-unable to convert ammonia to urea
    • young animals-anabolic and drink a lot of water
  43. Creatinine
    non-protein nitrogenous waste product from muscle cells
  44. reasons for increased Creatinine
    all azotemias
  45. Reasons for decreased CREA
  46. what is required to diagnose and classify azotemia
  47. pancreas exocrine fx
    • digenstive enzymes: amylase-CHO breakdown typsin
    • lypase-fat
  48. Pancreas Endocrine fx
    • hormones
    • insulin decreases blood glucose
    • glycogen increases blood glucose
  49. Pancreas tests
    Glucose-measures endocrine fx must separate serum asap because is will decrease by 10% every hour
  50. Hyperglycemia
    • DM-animal lacks insulin
    • post prandial
    • stress, fear, excitement, restraint, especailly cats due to epinephrine release
    • pancreatitits
    • hyperadrenocorticisim
  51. Hypoglycemia
    • liver failure-cant store glucogon as well
    • prolonged anorexia/starvation
    • juvinile hypoglycemia-overstim play with young pups and kits
    • insulinoma-common in ferrets
    • insulin OD
  52. reasons for increased lipase
    • DM
    • duct obstruction
    • steroid tx
Card Set
mini Arrows test
clin chem bel rea arrows