Biology Exam 5

  1. Directional Selection
    Change in the environmental condidions from one extreme or another
  2. Adaptations
    Traits best for survival are passed on
  3. Darwin
    Father of Evolution
  4. Nonrandom mating
    a given member of a population is not equally likely to mate as another given member. They are considered to be the fittest and will mate more often with more mates
  5. Behavioral adaptations
    • Hibernation (Bears)
    • Mating choices (Birds/ songs)
  6. Structural adaptations
    • Anatomy is suited for the organisms environment
    • (Ducks webbed feet)
  7. Lamarcks theory of evolution
    Inheritance is acquired. Charateristics of organisms that have changed over time could pass that change on to their offspring
  8. Galapagos finches
    13 kinds of finches all with common ancestors, beak sizes, and shapes.
  9. Artificial selection
    • Humans have intervened
    • (Selection and domestication of dogs)
  10. Theory of evolution (Catastrophism)
    A large enviromental disaster that causes things to change
  11. Pepper moths
    Gray and white blend in with birch covered trees. Dark moths blended in better after the soot killed the lichen.
  12. Homologous structures
    Have similar structures.
  13. Analogous features
    • Have similar functions but are developed differently.
    • (Butterfly wings vs bat wings)
  14. Mutation
    a change in the genetic code. This can be lethal, neutral, or beneficial
  15. Morphology & Embryology
    Development of an organism prior to birth
  16. Disruptive selection
    Splits populations into 2 groups
  17. Stabilizing selection
    Favors those with AVERAGE traits
  18. Selection can be influence population in 3 ways
    • Stailizing selection
    • Directional selection
    • Disruptive selection
  19. Animal catagory lab
    • appendages - exoskeleton
    •                   - endoskeleton

    • no appendages - shell
    •                       - no shell
  20. Grants study
    A couple who are studying the galapagos island finches. They have found that evolution can occure far quicker than Darwin believed
  21. Biological diversity
    There is always diversity in the gene pool within a species
  22. Change in grequency of allels is
    how genetic information changes what traits show up more often
  23. Adaptation
    Allows for survival
  24. Physiological adaptation
    How the body works with its environment.

    (Koala bears eat toxic plants that slow their heart rate, lower body temp, and cause them to more slowly. This helps them survive the heat)
  25. Gene flow
    Beneficial traits will be passed from generation to generation, from population to population
  26. Vestigial structures
    Structures that are present but are no longer needed.

    (snakes legs and vampire bat molers)
  27. Natural selection
    Those who are the fittest will mate and reproduce offspring with favorable traits
  28. Fossils
    Imprints of structures within rock
  29. Wallace
    • "Survival of the fittest"
    • A researcher of evolution
  30. Evidence of evolution?
    • Radiometric dating
    • Fossils
    • Comparative morphology and embryological development
  31. 5 agents in microevolution
    • Mutation
    • Gene flow
    • Genetic drift
    • Nonrandom mating
    • Natural selection
  32. Fitness
    Best adaptive traits
  33. Natural selection
    Survival of the fittest. The best traits will be passed on.
  34. Comparative homologous features
    • Are similar in structure as well as embryolical development.
    • (Bat wings vs bird wings)
  35. Radiometric dating
    Carbon 14 dating. Radioactive substances break down into 1/2 lives
  36. Bottleneck
    sever reduction in population. Small populations limit the gene pool and increase the changes for genetic disorders
  37. Founder effect
    Species in new environment will favor certain traits
  38. Genetic drift
    A chance altering
  39. Species
    Interbreeding populations which produce viable offspring.
  40. Reproductive isolating mechanisms
    Keeps the species separate
  41. Prezygotic
    Prevents the sperm from fertilizing the egg
  42. Mechanical (Prezygotic)
    Not physically compatible. (If it doesn't fit, it won't work)
  43. Behavioral (Prezygotic)
    Behaviors are different. (If it has the wrong song and/or dance, it won't work)
  44. Temporal (Prezygotic)
    Species breed at different times, keeping the species seperate.
  45. Gamete (Prezygotic)
    Egg and sperm cannot fuse. (The sperm has the wrong enzymes to get through the egg wall)
  46. Ecological (Preqygotic)
    Different habitats. (they aren't near one another to breed)
  47. Postzygotic hybrids
    Offspring may not survive or can be sterile
  48. Hybrid inviability
    Hybrid offspring fails to survive to maturity
  49. Hybrid infertility
    Hybrid offspring are sterile or have reduced fertility
  50. Allopatric speciation
    Species separated by geography will change over time. (Darwins finches)
  51. Colonization
    1 group of finches turned into 13 different species because of the the environment (the island). The fittest traits for survival were passed to offspring causing the change
  52. Genetic divergence
    Over time species change due to adapting to the new environments
  53. Reproductive isolation
    Gene pool is separated from the original gene pool due to changes that occur over time
  54. Cmpetition
    fittest for environment survive to breed those characteristic to offspring
  55. Sympatric speciation
    Absence of geologic separation. (Fruit flies/hawthrones)
  56. Coevolution
    symbiotic relationships (Mimicry)
  57. Comparative biochemistry
    Chemical makeup is similar. Horseshoe crab has the same blood chemistry as spiders
  58. Genetics
  59. Extinction
    Death of last of a species
  60. Causes of extinction
    • Habitat destruction
    • Competition
  61. Linnaeus
    Father of Taxonomy
  62. Tasonomy
    Classification system based on homologous structures
  63. Binomial nomenclature
    • 2 term naming system (In latin)
    • Genus species-identification system
  64. Homo Sapien
    (Man) (Modern day)
  65. 5 kingdoms
    • Animal
    • Plant
    • Protist
    • Fungi
    • Monera
  66. Animal Kingdom
    • Heterotrophs
    • Multicellular
    • Eukaryote
  67. Plant Kingdom
    • Autotrophs (self feeders)
    • Multicellular
    • Eukaryote
  68. Protist Kingdom
    • Heterotrophs
    • Autotrophs
    • Unicellular
    • Eukaryote
  69. Fungi Kingdom
    • Heterotrophs
    • Plant like
    • Multicellular
    • Eukaryote
  70. Monera Kingdom
    • Bacteria & viruses
    • Prokaryotes
    • (REMEMBER: When you are sick with bacteria and viruses, you moan, and protest against taking medicine )
  71. 3 domains
    • Archaea
    • Bacteria
    • Eukarya
  72. Archaea Domain
    • Ancient bacteria
    • Prokaryotes
    • (members of AA singing karaoke)
  73. Bacteria domain
    • Modern bacteria
    • Prokaryotes
  74. Eukarya domain
    Eukaryotes divided into animal, plant, protist, and fungi kingdoms
  75. Classifications in order
    • Domain
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order Family
    • Genus
    • Species
    • (Did ken puke chunks of fried green spam)
  76. Taxonomic key
    Systematic way to identify organisms using their structures
  77. Humans Kingdom
  78. Humans Phylum
    Chordata (notochord)

    (You file data)
  79. Humans class
    • Mammalia (Hair and mammary glands)
    • (When you fix yo hurr, yous a class mama)
  80. Human order
    • Primate (Binocular vision, opposable thumbs)
    • (If you order a primate online, you better use your binoculars to look for the po'po comin for you)
  81. Humans Family
    Himinidae (walk upright)
  82. Humans genus
    • Homo (man like)
    • (Holy homo genus)
  83. Humans species
    Sapien (modern day)
Card Set
Biology Exam 5
Biology 5 exam