1. chromoproteins
    proteins bound to pigmented molecules
  2. cofactors
    nonprotein molecule used by enzymes to become active
  3. prosthetic groups
    cofactors that bind to an enzyme with strong covalent bonds
  4. fluid mosaic model
    cell membrane consists of a phospholipid bilayer with proteins embedded throughout
  5. nucleolus
    structure in the nucleus where ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis occurs
  6. location of most of the cell's metabolic activity
  7. cyclosis
    circular motion of cytoplasm around the cell transports molecules
  8. centrioles
    involved in spindle organization during cell division

    *plants cells do not contain centrioles
  9. pinocytosis
    ingestion of fluids or small particles
  10. Brownian movement
    kinetic energy spreads small, suspended particles throughout the cytoplasm of the cell
  11. endoplasmic reticulum
    provides a direct, continuous passageway from the plasma membrane to the nuclear membrane
  12. karyokinesis
    nuclear division
  13. phase a cell spends 90% of its life in
  14. centromere
    holds sister chromatids together
  15. chromatin
    uncoiled DNA
  16. 4 parts to interphase
    • 1) G1
    • 2) S
    • 3) G2
    • 4) M
  17. G1 phase
    • initiates interphase
    • active growth phase - cell increases in size and synthesizes proteins
    • determines length of entire cell cycle
  18. S phase
    period of DNA Synthesis
  19. G2 phase
    • cell prepares to divide
    • grows and synthesizes proteins
  20. M phase
    cell division occurs (Mitosis)
  21. 6 stages of cell division
    • 1) interphase
    • 2) prophase
    • 3) metaphase
    • 4) anaphase
    • 5) telophase
    • 6) cytokinesis
  22. prophase
    • 2nd stage of cell division
    • chromosomes condense
    • centrioles separate & move towards the opposite poles of the cell
    • spindle apparatus forms between centrioles
    • nuclear membrane dissolves, allowing spindle fibers to interact with chromosomes
  23. metaphase
    • 3rd stage of cell division
    • centriole pairs are at opposite poles
    • spindle apparatus fibers attach to each chromatid at the centromere to align the chromosomes (forming the metaphase plate)
  24. metaphase plate
    • The plane of the spindle approximately equidistant from the two poles along which the chromosomes are lined up during mitosis or meiosis.
    • Also termed the equator.
  25. anaphase
    • 4th stage of cell division
    • centromeres split, allowing sister chromatids to separate
    • spindle fibers shorten
  26. telophase
    • 5th stage of cell division
    • spindle apparatus disappears
    • nuclear membrane forms around each set of newly formed chromosomes
    • chromosomes uncoil
  27. cytokinesis
    • 6th stage of cell division
    • cytoplasm divides into 2 daughter cells
    • cleavage furrow forms
    • cell membrane indents along the equator and pinches through the cell
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