1. What is the most sensitive indicator of recent alcohol abuse?
    Serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidases (GGT)
  2. Why is telomerase targeted by nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors?
    Telomerase is an enzyme with reverse transcriptase activity.
  3. What is the likely explanation for the following?
    abdominal pain and diarrhea
    yellow brown urine, WBC 25 cells/hpf w/ gram negative rods
    Enteric fistula which points to Crohn Disease (involves entire bowel wall).
  4. What are risk factors for pigment gallstones?
    Hepatic cirrhosis, hemolytic anemias, and liver fluke infection (Clonorchis sinensis)
  5. Innervation and function:
    Tensor veli palatini
    Levator veli palatini
    musculus uvulae
    • Tensor veli palatini
    • - (mandibular V) opens auditory tube
    • Levator veli palatini
    • - (X) elevates soft palate
    • Palatopharyngeous
    • - Elevates pharynx
    • Palatoglossus
    • - (X) elevates tongue 
    • musculus uvulae
    • - (X) elevates uvula
  6. What is the innervation and function of the genioglossus muscle?
    • Hypoglossal nerve
    • -> protrusion and depression
  7. What are the vein anasotmosis seen on the abdomen?
    Caput medusa = superficial abdominal veins (caval) & paraumbilical veins

    Internal hemorrhoids = Superior rectal vein & inferior rectal vein(caval)

    Esophageal varices = esophageal vein & gastric vein (caval)
  8. What is Menetrier Disease?
    Hyperplastic gastropathy characterized by enlarged rugal folds

    Increased proliferation of the mucus-producing cells of the stomach -> presents as a protein-losing enteropathy(b/c of increased mucus production)
  9. What part of the tooth is arises from mesoderm?
    Peridontal ligaments (scury)

  10. In stimulated secretory flow of the saliva ducts what is the content of the saliva?
    Increased Na+, Cl-, and HCO3- with low K+
  11. What are the risk factors for a malignant tumor composed of glandular structures in the large intestine?
    This is colorectal adenocarcinoma

    • Risk Factors:
    • Ulcerative colitis
    • familial polyposis coli, Gardner syndrome, and Turcot Syndrome.
    • Diets high in fat and protein and low in fiber.
  12. What chemicals are responsible for sympathetic hyperpolarization of smooth muscle?
    • NO
    • VIP
  13. In terms of stomach secretion how do PGE2 and PGI2 differ?
    PGE2 -> cAMP dependent H+ secretion

    PGI2 -> mucus and HCO3 secretion and inhibition of H+ secretion
  14. How does HCO3 get incoporated into the pancreas fluid in the ductule?
    • FA and AA -> cholecystokinin -> S cells
    • H+ and fat -> S cells

    S cells secrete secretin which secrete HCO3-
  15. What two toxins cause diarrhea by ADP-ribosylating a GTP-binding protein?
    • Vibrio cholerae - enterotoxin
    • Escherichia coli - heat-labile toxin
  16. What ligament contains the proper hepatic artery and its branches, the common bile duct and its branches, and the portal vein.
    The hepatoduodenal ligament
  17. After gastric bypass what types of food lead to the dumping syndrome?
    • Simple sugars
    • large volume of fluids with meals
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