What is the function of cholesterol in the plasma membrane?
- Decreases the fluidity --> less deformable
- Also increases the melting temperature.
What are the phosphate polar groups that make up the phospholipids in the plasma membrane?
- 1) phosphatidylcholine
- 2) Sphingomyelin
- 1) phosphatidylserine (-)
- 2) ehtanolamine
- 3) inositol (cell signal)
What are the two proteins associated with the plasma membrane and how are they destroyed?
- Integral proteins - detergent
- Peripheral proteins - high salt
H2O + CO2 -> H2CO3 -> HCO3- + H+
What causes this shift in the equation?
- Metabolic alkalosis
- Conn's syndrome
- Lung disease
- Cushing syndrome
Hydrolysis is exergonic or endergonic?
Hydrolysis is exergonic.
Condensation is endergonic
What are the 2 stereoisomers?
Diastereomers- Not mirror images with different physical & chemical properties
Enantiomers- Chiral vs achiral mirror images) R & S, and racemic mixtures. Similar chem properties except for light rotation and reactions with chiral.
What is the innervation for the following muscles?
Rhomboid major and minor
- Trapezius - CN XI
- Latissimus Dorsi- Thoracodorsal Nerve
- Levator Scapulae- Dorsal Scapular nerve
- Rhomboid Minor/ Major- Dorsal Scapular nerve
What are the borders of the suboccipital triangle?
Which muscle(s) retract scapula and rotate it downwards/ inferiorly, also fixes scapula to thoracic wall?
Rhomboid minor and major.
What are the layers of muscles overlying vertebral artery?
Splenius capitus and semispinalis capitus
What are the 6 types of cancers detected with intermediate filaments?
- Keratins -> epithelium
- vimentin -> mesenchymal
- Desmin -> muscles
- Glial fibrillary acidic protein -> Glial
- neurofilaments -> neurons
- nuclear lamins -> nucleus (all. not helpful)
What are the three components of the cytoskeleton?
- Intermediate filaments
- Actin filaments
What is the difference between microtubule growth and actin growth?
Microtubules - grow GTP only at the + end
Actin - grow in treadmill style with ATP
What RNA molecules are synthesized in euchromatin outside of the nucleoli?
tRNA & mRNA
How is rRNA synthesized and how is it transported?
- Ran regulation of proteins into nucleoli via basic NLS
- synthesize rRNA
- transported into cytoplasm via hydrophobic NES
What is the role of nuclear lamina and what is it composed of?
It is composed of intermediate filaments
It binds chromatin & nuclear membrane, plays role in disassembly and strength.
Small, laminated, concentric, calcific spehrules are found in which 4 neoplasms?
- Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid
- Serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary
What is the function of the common fibular nerve?
Sensation of anterior leg and dorsum of foot
Dorsiflexion and eversion of the foot.
What causes metastatic calcification?
- Hypercalcemia which can be caused by:
- Addison disease
- chronic renal failure
- massive bone destruction(leukemia, metastatic carcinoma, or multiple myeloma)