1. What is the function of cholesterol in the plasma membrane?
    • Decreases the fluidity --> less deformable
    • Also increases the melting temperature.
  2. What are the phosphate polar groups that make up the phospholipids in the plasma membrane?
    • 1) phosphatidylcholine
    • 2) Sphingomyelin

    • NonCholine
    • 1) phosphatidylserine (-)
    • 2) ehtanolamine
    • 3) inositol (cell signal)
  3. What are the two proteins associated with the plasma membrane and how are they destroyed?
    • Integral proteins - detergent
    • Peripheral proteins - high salt
  4. H2O + CO2 -> H2CO3 -> HCO3- + H+
    What causes this shift in the equation?
    • Metabolic alkalosis
    • Conn's syndrome
    • Vomiting
    • Lung disease
    • Cushing syndrome
  5. Hydrolysis is exergonic or endergonic?
    Hydrolysis is exergonic.

    Condensation is endergonic
  6. What are the 2 stereoisomers?
    Diastereomers- Not mirror images with different physical & chemical properties

    Enantiomers- Chiral vs achiral mirror images) R & S, and racemic mixtures. Similar chem properties except for light rotation and reactions with chiral.
  7. What is the innervation for the following muscles?
    Latissimus Dorsi
    Levator Scapulae
    Rhomboid major and minor
    • Trapezius - CN XI
    • Latissimus Dorsi- Thoracodorsal Nerve
    • Levator Scapulae- Dorsal Scapular nerve
    • Rhomboid Minor/ Major- Dorsal Scapular nerve
  8. What are the borders of the suboccipital triangle?
    Image Upload 2
  9. Which muscle(s) retract scapula and rotate it downwards/ inferiorly, also fixes scapula to thoracic wall?
    Rhomboid minor and major.
  10. What are the layers of muscles overlying vertebral artery?
    Splenius capitus and semispinalis capitus
  11. What are the 6 types of cancers detected with intermediate filaments?
    • Keratins -> epithelium
    • vimentin -> mesenchymal
    • Desmin -> muscles
    • Glial fibrillary acidic protein -> Glial
    • neurofilaments -> neurons
    • nuclear lamins -> nucleus (all. not helpful)
  12. What are the three components of the cytoskeleton?
    • Intermediate filaments
    • Microtubules
    • Actin filaments
  13. What is the difference between microtubule growth and actin growth?
    Microtubules - grow GTP only at the + end

    Actin - grow in treadmill style with ATP
  14. What RNA molecules are synthesized in euchromatin outside of the nucleoli?
    tRNA & mRNA
  15. How is rRNA synthesized and how is it transported?
    • Ran regulation of proteins into nucleoli via basic NLS
    • synthesize rRNA
    • transported into cytoplasm via hydrophobic NES
  16. What is the role of nuclear lamina and what is it composed of?
    It is composed of intermediate filaments

    It binds chromatin & nuclear membrane, plays role in disassembly and strength.
  17. Small, laminated, concentric, calcific spehrules are found in which 4 neoplasms?
    • Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid
    • Serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary
    • Meningioma
    • Mesothelioma
  18. What is the function of the common fibular nerve?
    Sensation of anterior leg and dorsum of foot

    Dorsiflexion and eversion of the foot.
  19. What causes metastatic calcification?
    • Hypercalcemia which can be caused by:
    • hyperparathyroidism
    • hyperthyroidism
    • Addison disease
    • chronic renal failure
    • massive bone destruction(leukemia, metastatic carcinoma, or multiple myeloma)
Card Set
Fundamentals Semester 1