POL SCI: The Democratic Peace

  1. The Democratic Peace:
    • No two liberal democracies have ever fought each other in a war
    • -But democracies do fight non-democracies
  2. Liberalism: Immanuel Kant:
    (Perpetual Peace 1795)- the path to world peace was the spread of liberal democratic government
  3. Liberalism:
    political philosophy placing the highest value on the rights of individuals
  4. Liberal democracies:
    democracies meant to enforce the rules protecting these rights
  5. Perpetual Peace: The spread of democracy was inevitable in the long-run because...
    democracy was a better form of government
  6. Perpetual Peace: Internal pressure:
    monarchs would have to trade political power for tax revenue
  7. External pressure:
    dictatorships are out-competed by democracies
  8. Democracy:
    • -Democracy has spread
    • -Democracies win more wars (81%)
    • -Wars involving democracies are shorter in duration
    • -Democracies suffer fewer casualties
  9. The Democratic Peace: Two explanations: Explanation 1:
    • Normative Argument
    • -Because of democratic norms (such as compromise), democracies are not war prone
    • -Democracies externalize democratic norms and so compromise more in foreign policy
    • -But not when dealing with non-democracies
  10. War is prevented by:
    institutional constraints and political constraints: mobilization for war in democracies is difficult
  11. Institutional Constraints: Mobilization for war in democracies is difficult
    • -Time required for a democracy to mobilize is longer than for a non-democracy
    • -So, when there is a conflict between 2 democracies, by the time the 2 states are ready for war, a diplomatic solution to the conflict has been found
  12. Norms or Institutional Constraints? The two arguments both
    • predict that democracies will not fight one another:
    • 1)Democratic institutions prevent leaders from getting involved in wars with other democracies
    • 2)Leaders constrained by democratic norms, which prevents them from fighting other democracies
  13. So, how do you distinguish between the two contraints?
    Different predictions
  14. Different Predictions: Maoz and Russett:
    • -Democratic norms take time to develop- the normative model would thus predict that older democracies should be less likely to clash with one another than newer ones
    • -As long as the institutional constraints are in place, the age of the regime should not matter
  15. Different Predictions:The institutional constraints model implies:
    • variations between different democracies because different democracies have different constraints
    • -In the normative model, this should make no difference
  16. Predictions: When the level of democratic norms is low and the level of political constraints is high:
    • the normative model predicts conflict, while the institutional model does not
    • (newer democracy)
  17. Predictions: When the level of democratic norms is high and the level of political constraints is low:
    • the institutional model predicts conflict, while the normative model does not
    • (older democracy)
  18. The Data: Relevant dyad-years:
    • (1946-1986)
    • dyad=any two countries (France and Germany)
  19. The Data: Dependent variable:
    militarizied disputes
  20. Democracy measured from “Polity” data:
    • -competitiveness of political participation
    • -regulation of participation
    • -competitiveness and openness of executive recruitment
    • - constraints on the chief executive
  21. The Data: Institutional constraints:
    executive constraint, centralization, scope of government action
  22. The Data: Norms:
    political stability & the level of political violence (number of political executions)
  23. The Results: Both models supported by the data:
    • -Found that leaders who practice norms at home were more peaceful abroad
    • -Constraints also important
  24. Other Democratic Peace Findings:
    • -Democracies do not fight each other
    • -Democracies fight wars with non-democracies
    • -Democracies emerge victorious in war
    • -Democracies reach peaceful settlements when disputes arise with other democracies
    • -Democracies are more likely to initiate war against autocracies than autocracies are likely to initiate
    • wars against democracies
  25. Other Democratic Peace Findings:
    • -Democracies experience fewer battle deaths in the wars they initiate
    • -Democracies are more likely to fight shorter wars than autocracies
    • -Democracies are more likely to fight with one another when they are in transition to democracy
Card Set
POL SCI: The Democratic Peace