1. 0.9% Saline
  2. 0.45% saline
  3. 5% dextrose in water (D5W)
  4. 10% dextrose in water D10W
  5. 5% dextrose in 0.9% saline
  6. 5% dextrose in 0.45% saline
  7. 5% dextrose in 0.225% saline
  8. Ringer's lactate
  9. 5% dextrose in Ringer's lactate
  10. Obligatory urine output
    minimum amount of urine per day needed to excrete toxic waste products is 400 - 600 mL
  11. Diffusion,moment
    from an area of higher concentration to lower concentration
  12. Osmosis,movement
    of water only through a selectively permeable membrane
  13. Osmolarity,number
    of milliosmoles in a liter of solution
  14. Osmolality,number
    of milliosmoles in a kilogram solution
  15. Aldosterone,secreted
    acts on the kidney, triggering them to reabsorb sodium and water from urine back to the blood
  16. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    acts directly on kidney tubules and collecting ducts, making them more permeable to water
  17. Natriuretic peptides (NPs)
    secreted by special cells that line the atria of the heart & ventricles of the heart
  18. Hypovolemia
    Circulating blood volume is decreased
  19. Hypoxia
    decreased oxygen levels
  20. pH normal values
    7.35 - 7.45
  21. PaO2 normal values
    80 - 100 mm Hg
  22. PaCO2 normal values
    35-45 mm Hg
  23. HCO3 (bicarbonate) normal values
    21 - 28 mEq/L
  24. Lacate normal values
    3-7 mg/dL
  25. Base is
    • A substance that binds free hydrogen ions in solution
    • Acid is
    • A substance that release hydrogen ions when dissolved in H2O
  26. The lower the pH value of a fluid
    the higher the level of free hydrogen ions in that fluid
  27. pH increased metabolic alkalosis
    loss of gastric fluids, decreased K+ intake, diuretic therapy, fever, salicylate toxicity
  28. pH decreased, metabolic or respiratory acidosis
    detosis, renal failure, starvation, diarrhea, hyperthyroidism
  29. PaO2 increased
    increased ventilation, oxygen therapy, exercise
  30. PaO2 decreased
    respiratory depression, high altitude, carbon monoxide poisoning, decreased cardiac output
  31. PaCO2 increased
    respiratory acidosis, emphysema, pneumonia, cardiac failure, respiratory depression
  32. PaCO2 decreased
    respiratory alkalosis, excessive ventilation, diarrhea
  33. HCO3 increased
    bicarbonate therapy, metabolic alkalosis
  34. HCO3 decreased,metabolic acidosis
    diarrhea, pancreatitis
  35. Chemical Regulatory Mechanisms
    • Protein buffers (albumin, globulins, hemoglobin)
    • Chemical buffers (bicarbonate, phosphate)
  36. Chemical Characteristics
    Very rapid response
  37. Respiratory Regulatory Mechanisms
    • Increased hydrogen ions or increased CO2 increased rate and depth of breathing
    • Decreased hydrogen ions or decreased carbon dioxide
  38. Respiratory Characteristics
    Primarily assist buffering systems when the fluctuation of hydrogen ion concentration is acute
  39. Renal Regulatory Mechanisms
    • to Decrease pH: increased renal excretion of bicarbonate & reabsorption of hydrogen ions
    • to Increase pH: decreased renal excretion of bicarbonate & reabsorption of hydrogen ions
  40. Renal Characteristics
    • Most powerful regulator of acid-base balance
    • Slowest response
    • Longest duration
  41. Respiratory opposite (acidosis or alkalosis)
    • pH up PaCO2 down
    • pH down PaCO2 up
  42. Metabolic equal (acidosis or alkalosis)
    • pH up HCO3 up
    • pH down HCO3 down
Card Set