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  1. Paitents who have a hard time eating or swallowing
  2. What is the goalĀ  when creating a diet for a patient with dysphagia
    • Meet nutritional needs
    • Preven aspiration
  3. What are causes of acute dysphagia
    • CVA
    • sizerue
    • trauma
    • surgery
    • anoxia
  4. What are some causes of progressive dysphagia
    • dementia
    • Parkinson's
    • MS
    • ALS
    • Myathenia gravis
    • tumors
    • cancer
  5. What are the warning signs of dysphagia
    • Communication issues
    • Collecting food in mouth
    • Spitting food
    • Unable to control tounge
    • Coughing before/after swallowing
    • Choking
    • Excessive drooling
    • Food regurgitating through node &mouth/tract tube
    • Increased meal time
    • Resisting food
    • Recurring respiratory infections
  6. Who normally evaluates the patients ability to swallow solids and liquids so they can be placed on a diet

    Also aid in teaching swallowing techniques
    speech therapist
  7. What are diets based on for patients with dysphagia
    • What food they like
    • Swallowing ability
  8. What are the features of food that should be taken into account and can be modified
    • Texture
    • Cohesivness
    • Density
    • Viscosity
    • Temp
    • Taste
  9. What are the 3 levels of dysphagia diets
    • Pureed
    • Mechanically altered
    • Advanced
  10. What are the benefits of thickening liquids
    Prevents aspiration
  11. What is something to watch for when giving a patient liquid thickener
    Can lead to dehydration
  12. What thickness level is the least restrictive and get most nutrients from cream based soups and supplements
  13. Whick level of thickener is used for patients with increased risk of aspiration or significant dysphagia
    Honey thick
  14. Which thickener level is the most restrictive, used with severe levels of dysphagia, and needs an IV for fluid

    These patients need to be monitered for dehyration
    Pudding thick
  15. Why should you only mix a small amount of thickener at a time
    Fluid thickens while standing
  16. As a nurse, what are some things you need to do to make feeding time easier on a patient with dysphagia
    • 90o , bend forward slightly, tuck chin
    • Remain upright 20-30 min after meal
    • Eliminate distractions
    • No liquids to "wash down" food
    • Use thickeners as ordered
    • Encourage small bites
    • Allow adequate time
    • Look for retained food in mouth
    • Watch for aspiration signs
    • Document intake & difficulties
  17. What are some swallowing aids
    • Talking about food before a meal
    • Tart foods
    • Patient licks jelly from lips
    • Have patient hum, pucker, or whistle
  18. What happens when we talk about food before a meal to a patient
    • Stimulates saliva which helps:
    • form bolus
    • Aids in chewing and swallowing
  19. Why give a patient with dysphagia tart or sour foods
    to stimulate saliva
  20. Why do we make a dysphagia patient lick jelly from their lips, pucker, hum, or whistle
    to strenghthen mouth muscles

    may help a patient place mouth over a spoon or fork
  21. What is a CHO diet/diabetic diet
    • CHO- 55-60%
    • Protein- 10-20%
    • Lipids- <30%
    • Fiber- 20-35g
  22. When on a CHO diet what levels chould be evaluated
    • Glucose
    • Serum lipids
    • kcals
    • diet
    • insulin/medication
  23. What are low residue diets
    Food to minimize elemination by reducing fecal volume
  24. What foods are restricted on a low residual diet
    • High fiber
    • Milk & milk products
    • Fried foods
    • Pepper
    • Alcohol
    • Heavy seasonings
  25. What diet manages malabsorption, chronic pancreatitis,
    Fat controlled diet
  26. Why are medium chain triglycerides used with high intake of CHO and protein in a fat controlled diet
    easier to digest
  27. What foods are restricted on a fat controlled diet
    • High fat
    • Fried food

    • Didlipidemia should also restrict:
    • saturated fats
    • sodium
    • hydrogenated food products
  28. What may sometimes be replaced on a fat controlled diet
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